The Microbiology Unit

The unit is located in the Donald Woods Building, opposite the entrance to the Biochemistry stores.

Microbiology Unit Labs:

Judith Armitage


Jane Mellor


David Sherratt,
Iveagh Professor

Matthew Whitby


Microbiology Unit Seminars

Microbiology Unit Images

Microbiology Unit Publications Indexed in Medline:

1. Whitby, M.C. (2005) Making crossovers during meiosis. Biochem Soc Trans, 33, 1451-1455.

2. Wang, X., Possoz, C. and Sherratt, D.J. (2005) Dancing around the divisome: asymmetric chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev, 19, 2367-2377.

3. Wadhams, G.H., Martin, A.C., Warren, A.V. and Armitage, J.P. (2005) Requirements for chemotaxis protein localization in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mol Microbiol, 58, 895-902.

4. Val, M.E., Bouvier, M., Campos, J., Sherratt, D., Cornet, F., Mazel, D. and Barre, F.X. (2005) The single-stranded genome of phage CTX is the form used for integration into the genome of Vibrio cholerae. Mol Cell, 19, 559-566.

5. Slovak, P.M., Wadhams, G.H. and Armitage, J.P. (2005) Localization of MreB in Rhodobacter sphaeroides under conditions causing changes in cell shape and membrane structure. J Bacteriol, 187, 54-64.

6. Pease, P.J., Levy, O., Cost, G.J., Gore, J., Ptacin, J.L., Sherratt, D., Bustamante, C. and Cozzarelli, N.R. (2005) Sequence-directed DNA translocation by purified FtsK. Science, 307, 586-590.

7. Osman, F., Dixon, J., Barr, A.R. and Whitby, M.C. (2005) The F-Box DNA helicase Fbh1 prevents Rhp51-dependent recombination without mediator proteins. Mol Cell Biol, 25, 8084-8096.

8. Morillon, A., Karabetsou, N., Nair, A. and Mellor, J. (2005) Dynamic lysine methylation on histone H3 defines the regulatory phase of gene transcription. Mol Cell, 18, 723-734.

9. Mellor, J. (2005) The dynamics of chromatin remodeling at promoters. Mol Cell, 19, 147-157.

10. Malo, J., Mitchell, J.C., Venien-Bryan, C., Harris, J.R., Wille, H., Sherratt, D.J. and Turberfield, A.J. (2005) Engineering a 2D protein-DNA crystal. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 44, 3057-3061.

11. Liu, D., Crellin, P. and Chalmers, R. (2005) Cyclic changes in the affinity of protein-DNA interactions drive the progression and regulate the outcome of the Tn10 transposition reaction. Nucleic Acids Res, 33, 1982-1992.

12. Ebersbach, G., Sherratt, D.J. and Gerdes, K. (2005) Partition-associated incompatibility caused by random assortment of pure plasmid clusters. Mol Microbiol, 56, 1430-1440.

13. Armitage, J.P., Holland, I.B., Jenal, U. and Kenny, B. (2005) "Neural networks" in bacteria: making connections. J Bacteriol, 187, 26-36.

14. Ahn, J.S., Osman, F. and Whitby, M.C. (2005) Replication fork blockage by RTS1 at an ectopic site promotes recombination in fission yeast. Embo J, 24, 2011-2023.

15. Wright, J.C., Hood, D.W., Randle, G.A., Makepeace, K., Cox, A.D., Li, J., Chalmers, R., Richards, J.C. and Moxon, E.R. (2004) lpt6, a gene required for addition of phosphoethanolamine to inner-core lipopolysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. J Bacteriol, 186, 6970-6982.

16. Wadhams, G.H. and Armitage, J.P. (2004) Making sense of it all: bacterial chemotaxis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 5, 1024-1037.

17. Shu, J.C., Clarkson, J. and Yudkin, M.D. (2004) Studies of SpoIIAB mutant proteins elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the developmental transcription factor sigmaF in Bacillus subtilis. Biochem J, 384, 169-178.

18. Sherratt, D.J., Soballe, B., Barre, F.X., Filipe, S., Lau, I., Massey, T. and Yates, J. (2004) Recombination and chromosome segregation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 359, 61-69.

19. Searls, T., Chen, X., Allen, S. and Yudkin, M.D. (2004) Evaluation of the kinetic properties of the sporulation protein SpoIIE of Bacillus subtilis by inclusion in a model membrane. J Bacteriol, 186, 3195-3201.

20. Porter, S.L. and Armitage, J.P. (2004) Chemotaxis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides requires an atypical histidine protein kinase. J Biol Chem, 279, 54573-54580.

21. O'Sullivan, J.M., Tan-Wong, S.M., Morillon, A., Lee, B., Coles, J., Mellor, J. and Proudfoot, N.J. (2004) Gene loops juxtapose promoters and terminators in yeast. Nat Genet, 36, 1014-1018.

22. Mellor, J. and Morillon, A. (2004) ISWI complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1677, 100-112.

23. Massey, T.H., Aussel, L., Barre, F.X. and Sherratt, D.J. (2004) Asymmetric activation of Xer site-specific recombination by FtsK. EMBO Rep, 5, 399-404.

24. Martinez-Campa, C., Politis, P., Moreau, J.L., Kent, N., Goodall, J., Mellor, J. and Goding, C.R. (2004) Precise nucleosome positioning and the TATA box dictate requirements for the histone H4 tail and the bromodomain factor Bdf1. Mol Cell, 15, 69-81.

25. Lipkow, K., Buisine, N. and Chalmers, R. (2004) Promiscuous target interactions in the mariner transposon Himar1. J Biol Chem, 279, 48569-48575.

26. Lipkow, K., Buisine, N., Lampe, D.J. and Chalmers, R. (2004) Early intermediates of mariner transposition: catalysis without synapsis of the transposon ends suggests a novel architecture of the synaptic complex. Mol Cell Biol, 24, 8301-8311.

27. Kent, N.A., Eibert, S.M. and Mellor, J. (2004) Cbf1p is required for chromatin remodeling at promoter-proximal CACGTG motifs in yeast. J Biol Chem, 279, 27116-27123.

28. Doe, C.L. and Whitby, M.C. (2004) The involvement of Srs2 in post-replication repair and homologous recombination in fission yeast. Nucleic Acids Res, 32, 1480-1491.

29. Doe, C.L., Osman, F., Dixon, J. and Whitby, M.C. (2004) DNA repair by a Rad22-Mus81-dependent pathway that is independent of Rhp51. Nucleic Acids Res, 32, 5570-5581.

30. Delumeau, O., Dutta, S., Brigulla, M., Kuhnke, G., Hardwick, S.W., Volker, U., Yudkin, M.D. and Lewis, R.J. (2004) Functional and structural characterization of RsbU, a stress signaling protein phosphatase 2C. J Biol Chem, 279, 40927-40937.

31. Crellin, P., Sewitz, S. and Chalmers, R. (2004) DNA looping and catalysis; the IHF-folded arm of Tn10 promotes conformational changes and hairpin resolution. Mol Cell, 13, 537-547.

32. Clarkson, J., Shu, J.C., Harris, D.A., Campbell, I.D. and Yudkin, M.D. (2004) Fluorescence and kinetic analysis of the SpoIIAB phosphorylation reaction, a key regulator of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Biochemistry, 43, 3120-3128.

33. Clarkson, J., Campbell, I.D. and Yudkin, M.D. (2004) Physical evidence for the induced release of the Bacillus subtilis transcription factor, sigma(F), from its inhibitory complex. J Mol Biol, 340, 203-209.

34. Clarkson, J., Campbell, I.D. and Yudkin, M.D. (2004) Efficient regulation of sigmaF, the first sporulation-specific sigma factor in B.subtilis. J Mol Biol, 342, 1187-1195.

35. Chen, C.C., Yudkin, M.D. and Delumeau, O. (2004) Phosphorylation and RsbX-dependent dephosphorylation of RsbR in the RsbR-RsbS complex of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol, 186, 6830-6836.

36. Buisine, N. and Chalmers, R. (2004) yBlast, a graphical front end for the standalone BLAST suite. Biotechniques, 37, 987-989.

37. Yates, J., Aroyo, M., Sherratt, D.J. and Barre, F.X. (2003) Species specificity in the activation of Xer recombination at dif by FtsK. Mol Microbiol, 49, 241-249.

38. Whitby, M.C., Osman, F. and Dixon, J. (2003) Cleavage of model replication forks by fission yeast Mus81-Eme1 and budding yeast Mus81-Mms4. J Biol Chem, 278, 6928-6935.

39. Wadhams, G.H., Warren, A.V., Martin, A.C. and Armitage, J.P. (2003) Targeting of two signal transduction pathways to different regions of the bacterial cell. Mol Microbiol, 50, 763-770.

40. Sherratt, D.J. (2003) Bacterial chromosome dynamics. Science, 301, 780-785.

41. Sewitz, S., Crellin, P. and Chalmers, R. (2003) The positive and negative regulation of Tn10 transposition by IHF is mediated by structurally asymmetric transposon arms. Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 5868-5876.

42. Osman, F., Dixon, J., Doe, C.L. and Whitby, M.C. (2003) Generating crossovers by resolution of nicked Holliday junctions: a role for Mus81-Eme1 in meiosis. Mol Cell, 12, 761-774.

43. Morillon, A., O'Sullivan, J., Azad, A., Proudfoot, N. and Mellor, J. (2003) Regulation of elongating RNA polymerase II by forkhead transcription factors in yeast. Science, 300, 492-495.

44. Morillon, A., Karabetsou, N., O'Sullivan, J., Kent, N., Proudfoot, N. and Mellor, J. (2003) Isw1 chromatin remodeling ATPase coordinates transcription elongation and termination by RNA polymerase II. Cell, 115, 425-435.

45. Martin, A.C., Nair, U., Armitage, J.P. and Maddock, J.R. (2003) Polar localization of CheA2 in Rhodobacter sphaeroides requires specific Che homologs. J Bacteriol, 185, 4667-4671.

46. Lau, I.F., Filipe, S.R., Soballe, B., Okstad, O.A., Barre, F.X. and Sherratt, D.J. (2003) Spatial and temporal organization of replicating Escherichia coli chromosomes. Mol Microbiol, 49, 731-743.

47. Ip, S.C., Bregu, M., Barre, F.X. and Sherratt, D.J. (2003) Decatenation of DNA circles by FtsK-dependent Xer site-specific recombination. Embo J, 22, 6399-6407.

48. Ferreira, H., Butler-Cole, B., Burgin, A., Baker, R., Sherratt, D.J. and Arciszewska, L.K. (2003) Functional analysis of the C-terminal domains of the site-specific recombinases XerC and XerD. J Mol Biol, 330, 15-27.

49. Evans, L., Clarkson, J., Yudkin, M.D., Errington, J. and Feucht, A. (2003) Analysis of the interaction between the transcription factor sigmaG and the anti-sigma factor SpoIIAB of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol, 185, 4615-4619.

50. Dery, K.J., Soballe, B., Witherspoon, M.S., Bui, D., Koch, R., Sherratt, D.J. and Tolmasky, M.E. (2003) The aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib encoded by Tn1331 is evenly distributed within the cell's cytoplasm. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 2897-2902.

51. Clarkson, J., Campbell, I.D. and Yudkin, M.D. (2003) Phosphorylation induces subtle structural changes in SpoIIAA, a key regulator of sporulation. Biochem J, 372, 113-119.

52. Chernova, A.A., Armitage, J.P., Packer, H.L. and Maini, P.K. (2003) Response kinetics of tethered bacteria to stepwise changes in nutrient concentration. Biosystems, 71, 51-59.

53. Chen, C.C., Lewis, R.J., Harris, R., Yudkin, M.D. and Delumeau, O. (2003) A supramolecular complex in the environmental stress signalling pathway of Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol, 49, 1657-1669.

54. Armitage, J.P., Dorman, C.J., Hellingwerf, K., Schmitt, R., Summers, D. and Holland, B. (2003) Thinking and decision making, bacterial style: Bacterial Neural Networks, Obernai, France, 7th-12th June 2002. Mol Microbiol, 47, 583-593.

55. Armitage, J.P. (2003) Taxing questions in development. Trends Microbiol, 11, 239-242.

56. Armitage, J.P. and Hellingwerf, K.J. (2003) Light-induced behavioral responses (;phototaxis') in prokaryotes. Photosynth Res, 76, 145-155.

57. Ahn, J.S. and Whitby, M.C. (2003) The role of the SAP motif in promoting Holliday junction binding and resolution by SpCCE1. J Biol Chem, 278, 29121-29129.

58. Wadhams, G.H., Martin, A.C., Porter, S.L., Maddock, J.R., Mantotta, J.C., King, H.M. and Armitage, J.P. (2002) TlpC, a novel chemotaxis protein in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, localizes to a discrete region in the cytoplasm. Mol Microbiol, 46, 1211-1221.

59. Sherratt, D. (2002) Developing pretend play in children with autism: a case study. Autism, 6, 169-179.

60. Sarno, R., McGillivary, G., Sherratt, D.J., Actis, L.A. and Tolmasky, M.E. (2002) Complete nucleotide sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae multiresistance plasmid pJHCMW1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 3422-3427.

61. Romagnoli, S., Packer, H.L. and Armitage, J.P. (2002) Tactic responses to oxygen in the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides WS8N. J Bacteriol, 184, 5590-5598.

62. Porter, S.L., Warren, A.V., Martin, A.C. and Armitage, J.P. (2002) The third chemotaxis locus of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is essential for chemotaxis. Mol Microbiol, 46, 1081-1094.

63. Porter, S.L. and Armitage, J.P. (2002) Phosphotransfer in Rhodobacter sphaeroides chemotaxis. J Mol Biol, 324, 35-45.

64. Pham, H., Dery, K.J., Sherratt, D.J. and Tolmasky, M.E. (2002) Osmoregulation of dimer resolution at the plasmid pJHCMW1 mwr locus by Escherichia coli XerCD recombination. J Bacteriol, 184, 1607-1616.

65. Mackinnon, F.G., Cox, A.D., Plested, J.S., Tang, C.M., Makepeace, K., Coull, P.A., Wright, J.C., Chalmers, R., Hood, D.W., Richards, J.C. et al. (2002) Identification of a gene (lpt-3) required for the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the lipopolysaccharide inner core of Neisseria meningitidis and its role in mediating susceptibility to bactericidal killing and opsonophagocytosis. Mol Microbiol, 43, 931-943.

66. Doe, C.L., Ahn, J.S., Dixon, J. and Whitby, M.C. (2002) Mus81-Eme1 and Rqh1 involvement in processing stalled and collapsed replication forks. J Biol Chem, 277, 32753-32759.

67. Delumeau, O., Lewis, R.J. and Yudkin, M.D. (2002) Protein-protein interactions that regulate the energy stress activation of sigma(B) in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol, 184, 5583-5589.

68. Buisine, N., Tang, C.M. and Chalmers, R. (2002) Transposon-like Correia elements: structure, distribution and genetic exchange between pathogenic Neisseria sp. FEBS Lett, 522, 52-58.

69. Brown, J.L., He, J., Sherratt, D.J., Stark, W.M. and Boocock, M.R. (2002) Interactions of protein complexes on supercoiled DNA: the mechanism of selective synapsis by Tn3 resolvase. J Mol Biol, 319, 371-383.

70. Bregu, M., Sherratt, D.J. and Colloms, S.D. (2002) Accessory factors determine the order of strand exchange in Xer recombination at psi. Embo J, 21, 3888-3897.

71. Aussel, L., Barre, F.X., Aroyo, M., Stasiak, A., Stasiak, A.Z. and Sherratt, D. (2002) FtsK Is a DNA motor protein that activates chromosome dimer resolution by switching the catalytic state of the XerC and XerD recombinases. Cell, 108, 195-205.

72. Whitby, M.C. and Dixon, J. (2001) Fission yeast nascent polypeptide-associated complex binds to four-way DNA junctions. J Mol Biol, 306, 703-716.

73. Sherratt, D. (2001) Bacteria rule! The start of a new era in bacterial microbiology? EMBO Rep, 2, 175-176.

74. Sherratt, D.J., Lau, I.F. and Barre, F.X. (2001) Chromosome segregation. Curr Opin Microbiol, 4, 653-659.

75. Perals, K., Capiaux, H., Vincourt, J.B., Louarn, J.M., Sherratt, D.J. and Cornet, F. (2001) Interplay between recombination, cell division and chromosome structure during chromosome dimer resolution in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol, 39, 904-913.

76. Martin, A.C., Wadhams, G.H. and Armitage, J.P. (2001) The roles of the multiple CheW and CheA homologues in chemotaxis and in chemoreceptor localization in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mol Microbiol, 40, 1261-1272.

77. Martin, A.C., Wadhams, G.H., Shah, D.S., Porter, S.L., Mantotta, J.C., Craig, T.J., Verdult, P.H., Jones, H. and Armitage, J.P. (2001) CheR- and CheB-dependent chemosensory adaptation system of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J Bacteriol, 183, 7135-7144.

78. Lee, C.S., Clarkson, J., Shu, J.C., Campbell, I.D. and Yudkin, M.D. (2001) Bacillus subtilis mutations that alter the pathway of phosphorylation of the anti-anti-sigmaF factor SpoIIAA lead to a Spo- phenotype. Mol Microbiol, 40, 9-19.

79. Kent, N.A., Karabetsou, N., Politis, P.K. and Mellor, J. (2001) In vivo chromatin remodeling by yeast ISWI homologs Isw1p and Isw2p. Genes Dev, 15, 619-626.

80. Feucht, A., Lucet, I., Yudkin, M.D. and Errington, J. (2001) Cytological and biochemical characterization of the FtsA cell division protein of Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol, 40, 115-125.

81. Ferreira, H., Sherratt, D. and Arciszewska, L. (2001) Switching catalytic activity in the XerCD site-specific recombination machine. J Mol Biol, 312, 45-57.

82. Crellin, P. and Chalmers, R. (2001) Protein-DNA contacts and conformational changes in the Tn10 transpososome during assembly and activation for cleavage. Embo J, 20, 3882-3891.

83. Cranenburgh, R.M., Hanak, J.A., Williams, S.G. and Sherratt, D.J. (2001) Escherichia coli strains that allow antibiotic-free plasmid selection and maintenance by repressor titration. Nucleic Acids Res, 29, E26.

84. Clarkson, J., Campbell, I.D. and Yudkin, M.D. (2001) NMR studies of the interactions of SpoIIAA with its partner proteins that regulate sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. J Mol Biol, 314, 359-364.

85. Barre, F.X., Soballe, B., Michel, B., Aroyo, M., Robertson, M. and Sherratt, D. (2001) Circles: the replication-recombination-chromosome segregation connection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 8189-8195.

86. Wadhams, G.H., Martin, A.C. and Armitage, J.P. (2000) Identification and localization of a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mol Microbiol, 36, 1222-1233.

87. Tolmasky, M.E., Colloms, S., Blakely, G. and Sherratt, D.J. (2000) Stability by multimer resolution of pJHCMW1 is due to the Tn1331 resolvase and not to the Escherichia coli Xer system. Microbiology, 146 ( Pt 3), 581-589.

88. Sun, Y.H., Bakshi, S., Chalmers, R. and Tang, C.M. (2000) Functional genomics of Neisseria meningitidis pathogenesis. Nat Med, 6, 1269-1273.

89. Shah, D.S., Porter, S.L., Harris, D.C., Wadhams, G.H., Hamblin, P.A. and Armitage, J.P. (2000) Identification of a fourth cheY gene in Rhodobacter sphaeroides and interspecies interaction within the bacterial chemotaxis signal transduction pathway. Mol Microbiol, 35, 101-112.

90. Shah, D.S., Porter, S.L., Martin, A.C., Hamblin, P.A. and Armitage, J.P. (2000) Fine tuning bacterial chemotaxis: analysis of Rhodobacter sphaeroides behaviour under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by mutation of the major chemotaxis operons and cheY genes. Embo J, 19, 4601-4613.

91. Packer, H.L. and Armitage, J.P. (2000) Inverted behavioural responses in wild-type Rhodobacter sphaeroides to temporal stimuli. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 189, 299-304.

92. Packer, H.L. and Armitage, J.P. (2000) Behavioral responses of Rhodobacter sphaeroides to linear gradients of the nutrients succinate and acetate. Appl Environ Microbiol, 66, 5186-5191.

93. Owen, N., Doe, C.L., Mellor, J. and Davies, K.E. (2000) Characterization of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe orthologue of the human survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Hum Mol Genet, 9, 675-684.

94. Michel, B., Recchia, G.D., Penel-Colin, M., Ehrlich, S.D. and Sherratt, D.J. (2000) Resolution of holliday junctions by RuvABC prevents dimer formation in rep mutants and UV-irradiated cells. Mol Microbiol, 37, 180-191.

95. Lucet, I., Feucht, A., Yudkin, M.D. and Errington, J. (2000) Direct interaction between the cell division protein FtsZ and the cell differentiation protein SpoIIE. Embo J, 19, 1467-1475.

96. Lee, C.S., Lucet, I. and Yudkin, M.D. (2000) Fate of the SpoIIAB*-ADP liberated after SpoIIAB phosphorylates SpoIIAA of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol, 182, 6250-6253.

97. Imam, A.M., Patrinos, G.P., de Krom, M., Bottardi, S., Janssens, R.J., Katsantoni, E., Wai, A.W., Sherratt, D.J. and Grosveld, F.G. (2000) Modification of human beta-globin locus PAC clones by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res, 28, E65.

98. Doe, C.L., Dixon, J., Osman, F. and Whitby, M.C. (2000) Partial suppression of the fission yeast rqh1(-) phenotype by expression of a bacterial Holliday junction resolvase. Embo J, 19, 2751-2762.

99. Doe, C.L., Osman, F., Dixon, J. and Whitby, M.C. (2000) The Holliday junction resolvase SpCCE1 prevents mitochondrial DNA aggregation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Gen Genet, 263, 889-897.

100. Cox, M.M., Goodman, M.F., Kreuzer, K.N., Sherratt, D.J., Sandler, S.J. and Marians, K.J. (2000) The importance of repairing stalled replication forks. Nature, 404, 37-41.

101. Chalmers, R., Sewitz, S., Lipkow, K. and Crellin, P. (2000) Complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10. J Bacteriol, 182, 2970-2972.

102. Blakely, G.W., Davidson, A.O. and Sherratt, D.J. (2000) Sequential strand exchange by XerC and XerD during site-specific recombination at dif. J Biol Chem, 275, 9930-9936.

103. Berry, R.M. and Armitage, J.P. (2000) Response kinetics of tethered Rhodobacter sphaeroides to changes in light intensity. Biophys J, 78, 1207-1215.

104. Barre, F.X., Aroyo, M., Colloms, S.D., Helfrich, A., Cornet, F. and Sherratt, D.J. (2000) FtsK functions in the processing of a Holliday junction intermediate during bacterial chromosome segregation. Genes Dev, 14, 2976-2988.

105. Arciszewska, L.K., Baker, R.A., Hallet, B. and Sherratt, D.J. (2000) Coordinated control of XerC and XerD catalytic activities during Holliday junction resolution. J Mol Biol, 299, 391-403.

106. Strater, N., Sherratt, D.J. and Colloms, S.D. (1999) X-ray structure of aminopeptidase A from Escherichia coli and a model for the nucleoprotein complex in Xer site-specific recombination. Embo J, 18, 4513-4522.

107. Spiers, A.J. and Sherratt, D.J. (1999) C-terminal interactions between the XerC and XerD site-specific recombinases. Mol Microbiol, 32, 1031-1042.

108. Sciochetti, S.A., Piggot, P.J., Sherratt, D.J. and Blakely, G. (1999) The ripX locus of Bacillus subtilis encodes a site-specific recombinase involved in proper chromosome partitioning. J Bacteriol, 181, 6053-6062.

109. Romagnoli, S. and Armitage, J.P. (1999) Roles of chemosensory pathways in transient changes in swimming speed of Rhodobacter sphaeroides induced by changes in photosynthetic electron transport. J Bacteriol, 181, 34-39.

110. Recchia, G.D., Aroyo, M., Wolf, D., Blakely, G. and Sherratt, D.J. (1999) FtsK-dependent and -independent pathways of Xer site-specific recombination. Embo J, 18, 5724-5734.

111. Recchia, G.D. and Sherratt, D.J. (1999) Conservation of xer site-specific recombination genes in bacteria. Mol Microbiol, 34, 1146-1148.

112. Neilson, L., Blakely, G. and Sherratt, D.J. (1999) Site-specific recombination at dif by Haemophilus influenzae XerC. Mol Microbiol, 31, 915-926.

113. Lucet, I., Borriss, R. and Yudkin, M.D. (1999) Purification, kinetic properties, and intracellular concentration of SpoIIE, an integral membrane protein that regulates sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol, 181, 3242-3245.

114. Lord, M., Barilla, D. and Yudkin, M.D. (1999) Replacement of vegetative sigmaA by sporulation-specific sigmaF as a component of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme in sporulating Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol, 181, 2346-2350.

115. Harrison, D.M., Skidmore, J., Armitage, J.P. and Maddock, J.R. (1999) Localization and environmental regulation of MCP-like proteins in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mol Microbiol, 31, 885-892.

116. Hallet, B., Arciszewska, L.K. and Sherratt, D.J. (1999) Reciprocal control of catalysis by the tyrosine recombinases XerC and XerD: an enzymatic switch in site-specific recombination. Mol Cell, 4, 949-959.

117. Grainge, I. and Sherratt, D.J. (1999) Xer site-specific recombination. DNA strand rejoining by recombinase XerC. J Biol Chem, 274, 6763-6769.

118. Bath, J., Sherratt, D.J. and Colloms, S.D. (1999) Topology of Xer recombination on catenanes produced by lambda integrase. J Mol Biol, 289, 873-883.

119. Barilla, D., Lucet, I., Kuhlmann, A. and Yudkin, M.D. (1999) Genotype, phenotype, and protein structure in a regulator of sporulation: effects of mutations in the spoIIAA gene of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol, 181, 3860-3863.

120. Armitage, J.P., Pitta, T.P., Vigeant, M.A., Packer, H.L. and Ford, R.M. (1999) Transformations in flagellar structure of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and possible relationship to changes in swimming speed. J Bacteriol, 181, 4825-4833.

121. Armitage, J.P. (1999) Bacterial tactic responses. Adv Microb Physiol, 41, 229-289.

122. Williams, S.G., Cranenburgh, R.M., Weiss, A.M., Wrighton, C.J., Sherratt, D.J. and Hanak, J.A. (1998) Repressor titration: a novel system for selection and stable maintenance of recombinant plasmids. Nucleic Acids Res, 26, 2120-2124.

123. Whitby, M.C. and Lloyd, R.G. (1998) Targeting Holliday junctions by the RecG branch migration protein of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem, 273, 19729-19739.

124. Whitby, M.C. and Dixon, J. (1998) Substrate specificity of the SpCCE1 holliday junction resolvase of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Biol Chem, 273, 35063-35073.

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