Welcome To The Garman Group Website

We are part of the Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics at the University of Oxford.



About Us

Our research focuses on developing methods for macromolecular crystallography (MX) to enable problems not previously accessible to structure solution to be tackled. This work currently includes studies on 100K and room temperature (RT) radiation damage and the analysis of liquid and crystalline samples by the tehnique of microPIXE (microbeam Proton Induced X-ray Emission). The group also solve protein structures, most recently of arylamine N-acetyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

For more information about the group please visit our "People" page here

Above is the cover of the special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on X-ray Radiation Damage to Biological Crystalline Samples (March 2015). The image on the lower right shows the specific damage distribution (red and blue spheres) of the irradiated baterial protein-DNA complex CEsp1396I/DNA. The work and figure was produced by Charlie Bury.

Introduction to Crystallography

For an introduction into the method of X-ray crystallography please see this animation which Elspeth and Jonny helped to produce with Oxford Sparks.


The British Crystallographic Association

 The British Crystallographic Association (BCA) is the UK national  association for crystallograpy. It's main aims are the promotion of  crystallography in research and the education of young people and others  in the methods, possibilities and achievements of crystallographic        science. can visit the website here.


Recent Activity


Group Head

Prof. Elspeth Garman 
My group are interested in the development and optimisation of data collection techniques for structural biology, and in particular for macromolecular crystallography (MX). My background is in Physics, so we tend to apply thinking born of physics to our research. After a year teaching in a Secondary School in Swaziland, Southern Africa , I obtained a B.Sc. in Physics at Durham University and then a Doctorate in Experimental Nuclear Physics at Oxford University in 1980. After working as a Research Officer for 7 years in the Nuclear Physics Department in Oxford, I moved to the Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics in 1987 to look after their newly acquired electronic multi-wire X-ray detector. Since then, I have worked on a variety of problems, and among them has been optimising, understanding and disseminating cryo-crystallographic techniques, and on the physics and chemistry of radiation damage in MX. The group’s latest work is to enable 3-D modelling of the dose absorbed by a protein crystal for any beam conditions and a variety of data collection strategies. This can be found at www.raddo.se.

More about Elspeth Garman

Postdoctoral fellows

Helena Taberman 

I obtained my BSc and MSc in Chemistry continuing to PhD in Structural biology at the University of Eastern Finland. With a grant from the Finnish Cultural Foundation to work on ‘overcoming challenges of radiation damage in macromolecular complexes at the atomic level’ I will carry out systematic studies on radiation damage to protein, DNA, protein/DNA and protein/RNA crystals during structure determination by X-ray diffraction at cryo- and room temperatures. The new electron density loss pipeline, RIDL, will be used to calculate per-atom metrics to quantify the sensitivity to specific damage. Secondly, the newly established metric, Bdamage, will be used to search for incorrect metal assignments in the PDB followed by measuring some of these proteins using the microPIXE method to unambiguously identify the metals. The results will be then used to analyse if the re-identification of the metal affects the assumed function of the chosen proteins. The third aim of the project is to further improve RADDOSE-3D, which allows the radiation dose distribution during a diffraction experiment to be calculated with both time and space resolution.

  • Joined the group in January 2017

Research assistant

Joshua Dickerson — Improving RADDOSE-3D

I am making improvements to the group’s dose calculation software, RADDOSE-3D. My main focus is on improving the accuracy of the calculated dose by implementing a fluorescent X-ray escape model and improving and extending the current photoelectron escape model.

  • Joined the group in November 2017


Elspeth F. Garman
Raimond B. G. Ravelli (25 March 1968-30 June 2023).
Acta Cryst. (2023) D79, 866-870
Elspeth F. Garman & Martin Weik.
Radiation damage to biological macromolecules.
Current Opinion in Structural Biology (2023) 82:10266
Randy J. Read, Edward N. Baker, Charles S. Bond, Elspeth F. Garman and Mark J. van Raaij.
AlphaFold and the future of structural biology.
Acta Cryst (2023) D79, 556-558
Jon Agirre,*…, Elspeth F. Garman, Markus Gerstel, …, Kathryn L. Shelley, et al.
The CCP4 suite: integrative software for macromolecular crystallography
Acta Cryst. D (2023) 79, 449-461
Geoffrey W. Grime and Elspeth F. Garman
The identification and quantitation of metal atoms in proteins using microPIXE: a critical evaluation.
Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B. (2023) 540, 237-245.
Elspeth F. Garman, Randy J. Read and Charles S. Bond.
30 years of Acta D.
Acta Cryst. (2023). D79, 95-97


Nathalie K. Fernando, Hanna L. B. Bostro¨m, Claire A. Murray, Robin L. Owen, Amber L. Thompson, Joshua L. Dickerson, Elspeth F. Garman, Andrew B. Cairns and Anna Regoutz,
Variability in X-ray induced effects in [Rh(COD)Cl]2 with changing experimental parameters.
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2022) DOI: 10.1039/d2cp03928a
Kathryn L. Shelley , Elspeth F. Garman,
Quantifying radiation damage in the Protein Data Bank.
Nature Communications (2022) 13:1314- 1325 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28934-0 | ww.nature.com/naturecommunications
Sarah Kono, Aafke van Berg, Marco Simonetta, Ann Murkhotova, Elspeth F. Garman, Ingrid Tessmer
Resolving the subtle details of human DNA alkyltransferase lesion search and repair mechanism by single molecule studies
PNAS 119 (11) e2116218119 | https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2116218119
Robert J. Ragotte, David Pulido, Amelia M. Lias, Doris Quinkert, Daniel G.W. Alanine, Abhishek Jamwal, Hannah Davies, Adéla Nacer, Edward D. Lowe, Geoff W. Grime, Joseph J. Illingworth, Robert F. Donat, Elspeth F. Garman, Paul W. Bowyer, Matthew K. Higgins, Simon J. Draper
Heterotypic interactions drive antibody synergy against a malaria vaccine candidate.
Nature Communications (2022) 13: 933 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28601-4
Matthew Herdman, Andriko von Kügelgen, Danguole Kureisaite-Ciziene, Ramona Duman, Kamel El Omari, Caroline Ajo-Franklin, Elspeth F. Garman, Andreas Kjaer, Dimitrios Kolokouris, Jan Löwe, Armin Wagner, Phillip Stansfeld and Tanmay A.M. Bharat.
High-resolution mapping of metal ions reveals principles of surface layer assembly in Caulobacter crescentus bacteria
Structure (2022) 30, 215-228


Edward N. Baker, Charles S. Bond, Elspeth F. Garman, Janet Newman, Randy J. Read and Mark J. van Raaij
Submission of structural biology data for review purposes.
Acta Cryst.D (2021) 77, 1477-1478. and in Acta Cryst.F, (2021). 77, 435-436
Elspeth F. Garman and Martin Weik
Radiation Damage in biological samples: still a pertinent issue
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, (2021), 75, 1278-1283.
Nathalie K. Fernando, Andrew B. Cairns, Claire A. Murray, Amber L.Thompson, Joshua Dickerson, Elspeth F. Garman, Nayera Ahmed, Laura E.Ratcliff and Anna Regoutz
Structural and Electronic Effects of X-ray Irradiation on Prototypical [M(COD)Cl]2 Catalysts
J Phys Chem A (2021) online 23/8/21 10.1021/acs.jpca.1c05759, 125, 7473-7488
Kevin Pounot*, Geoffrey W. Grime, Alessandro Longo, Michaela Zamponi, Daria Noferini, Viviana Cristiglio, Tilo Seydel, Elspeth F. Garman, Martin Weik, Vito Foderà*, Giorgio Schirò*
Zinc determines dynamical properties and aggregation kinetics of human insulin
Biophysical Journal (2021) 120, 1-13.
Joshua L. Dickerson and Elspeth F. Garman
Doses for experiments with microbeams and microcrystals: Monte Carlo simulations in RADDOSE-3D.
Protein Science (2021) 30, 8-19


Joshua L. Dickerson and Elspeth F. Garman*
Absorbed doses in experiments with microbeams and microcrystals: Monte Carlo simulations in RADDOSE-3D

Protein Science (2020) Published on-line July 2020
RADDOSE-XFEL: Femtosecond time-resolved dose estimates for macromolecular XFEL experiments

J. Appl. Cryst. (2020). 53, 549–560
Radiation damage and dose limits in serial synchrotron crystallography at cryo- and room temperatures

PNAS (2020)
High-throughput PIXE as an essential quantitative assay for accurate metalloprotein structural analysis; development and application

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2020, 142, 1, 185-197 On-line Dec 13 2019


Kristian E. H. Frandsen, Morten Tovborg, Christian I. Jørgensen, Nikolaj Spodsberg, Marie-Noëlle Rosso, Glyn R. Hemsworth, Elspeth F. Garman, Geoffrey W. Grime, Jens-Christian N. Poulsen, Tanveer S. Batth, Shingo Miyauchi, Anna Lipzen, Igor V. Grigoriev, Katja S. Johansen, Bernard Henrissat, Jean-Guy Berrin, Leila Lo Leggio
Insights into an unusual Auxiliary Activity 9 family member lacking the histidine brace motif of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases

J Biological Chemistry 294(45):17117-17130
Camilla Trevor, Andrea L. Gonzalez-Munoz, Olivia McLeod, Peter G. Woodcock, Steven Rust, Tristan J. Vaughan, Elspeth F. Garman, Ralph Minter, Mark Carrington and Matthew K. Higgins
Structure of the trypanosome transferrin receptor reveals mechanisms of ligand recognition and immune evasion

Nature Microbiology (2019) 4, 2074–2081
Crystallography 101: diffraction theory and space groups

Special Issue on Biophysics and Structural Biology at Synchrotrons Biophys Rev (2019) 11: 525-528
Triumph over Adversity: Structure of arylamine N-acetyltransferase from M. tuberculosis

Special Issue on Biophysics and Structural Biology at Synchrotrons
Cryo-cooling in Macromolecular Crystallography: why and how? Elspeth F Garman. Special Issue on Biophysics and Structural Biology at Synchrotrons

Special Issue on Biophysics and Structural Biology at Synchrotrons
E.F. Garman and M. Weik
X-ray radiation damage to biological samples: recent progress

J Synchrotron Radiation 26, 907–911
Helena Taberman, Charles S. Bury, Mark J. van der Woerd, Edward H. Snell and Elspeth F. Garman*
Structural knowledge or X-ray damage? A case study on xylose isomerase illustrating both

J Synchrotron Radiation 26, 931–944
Valéria Bugris, Veronika Harmat, Györgyi Ferenc, Sándor Brockhauser, Ian Carmichael, Elspeth F. Garman*
Radiation damage investigation of a DNA 16-mer

J Synchrotron Radiation 26, 998–1009
Jeppe Christensen1, Peter N. Horton, Charles S. Bury, Joshua L. Dickerson, Helena Taberman, Elspeth F. Garman*, Simon J. Coles*
Radiation damage in small molecule crystallography: fact not fiction

IUCrJ 6, 703–713
Joshua L. Dickerson and Elspeth F. Garman*
The potential benefits of using higher X-ray energies for macromolecular crystallography

J Synchrotron Radiation 26, 922–930
J. R. Helliwell, W. Minor, M. S. Weiss, E. F. Garman, R. J. Read, J. Newman, M. J. van Raaij, J. Hajdu and E. N. Baker
Findable Accessible Interoperable Re-usable (FAIR) diffraction data are coming to protein crystallography. Editorial

Journal of Applied Crystallography 52, 495-497
Acta Cryst. D 75, 455-457
Acta Cryst. F 75, 321-323
IUCrJ 6, 341-343


RIDL: a tool to investigate Radiation-Induced Density Loss

J. Appl. Cryst. (2018) in press.
Radiation Damage in Macromolecular Crystallography

Protein Crystallography: Challenges and Practical Solutions (2018) Ch.4, Royal Society of Chemistry, in press.
Radiation Damage in Macromolecular Crystallography—An Experimentalist’s View

Crystals (2018) 8, 157; doi:10.3390/cryst8040157
RABDAM: quantifying specific radiation damage in individual protein crystal structures

J, Appl. Cryst. (2018) 51, 552-559.
Estimate your dose: RADDOSE-3D

Protein Science (2018) 27, 217-228.


E. F. Garman and M. Weik
Radiation Damage in Macromolecular Crystallography

Protein Crystallography: Methods in Molecular Biology (2017) Volume 1607, Ch. 20, pp. 467-489.
E. F. Garman and M. Weik
X-ray radiation damage to biological macromolecules: further insights

J. Synchrotron Rad. (2017) 24, 1-6.
C. S. Bury, I. Carmichael and E. F. Garman
OH cleavage from tyrosine: debunking a myth

J. Synchrotron Rad. (2017) 24, 7-18.
J. C. Brooks-Bartlett, R. A. Batters, C. S. Bury, E. D. Lowe, H. M. Ginn, A. Round and E. F. Garman
Development of tools to automate qu­antitative analysis of radiation damage in SAXS experiments

J. Synchrotron Rad. (2017) 24, 63-72.
M. White, M. Klecker, R. Hopkinson, D. Weits, C. Müller, C. Naumann, R. O’Neill, J. Wickens, J. Yang, J. Brooks-Bartlett, E. Garman, T. Grossmann, E. Flashman, and N. Dissmeyer
Plant Cysteine Oxidases are Dioxygenases that Directly Enable Arginyl Transferase-Catalyzed Arginylation of N-End Rule Targets

Nature Communications (2017) doi:10.1038/ncomms14690
A. Abuhammad, M. A. McDonough, J. Brem, A. Makena, S. Johnson, C. J. Schofield, and E. F. Garman
"To cross-seed or not to cross-seed": a pilot study using metallo-β-lactamases

Crystal Growth and Design (2017) 17, 913-924.


A. Ho, J. Wagstaff, P. Manna, L. Wartosch, S. Qamar, E. Garman, S. Freund, and R. Roberts
The topology, structure and PE interaction of LITAF underpin a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C

BMC Biology (2016) 14, 109-130.
A. C. W. Pike, E. F. Garman, T. Krojer, F. von Delft and E. P. Carpenter
An Overview of Heavy Atom Derivatization of Protein Crystals

Acta Cryst. D (2016) 72, 303-318.
S. Tsukui, F. Kimura, E. F. Garman, S. Baba, N. Mizuno, B. Mikami and T. Kimura
X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis of Magnetically Oriented Microcrystals of Lysozyme at 1.8 Å Resolution
J. Appl. Cryst. (2016) 49, 457-461.
C. S. Bury, J. E. McGeehan, A. A. Antson, I. Carmichael, M. Gerstel, M. B. Shevtsov and E. F. Garman

RNA protects a nucleoprotein complex against radiation damage

Acta Cryst. D (2016) 72, 648-657
E. F. Garman

Entry for Professor Dame Louise N. Johnson for the National Dictionary of Biography

OUP Jan (2016) 
C. S. Bury, I. Carmichael, J. E. McGeehan and E. F. Garman

Radiation damage within nucleoprotein complexes studied by macromolecular X-ray crystallography

Radiat. Phys. Chem. (2016) 128, 118-125


The Nobel Science: 100 years of Crystallography
Interdisciplinary Science Reviews (2015) 72, 244-264.
M. Gerstel, C. M. Deane and E. F. Garman
Identifying and quantifying radiation damage at the atomic level
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2015) 22, 201-212.
E. F. Garman and M. Weik
Radiation Damage in Macromolecule Crystallography
Synchrotron Radiation News (2015) 28, 15-19.
C. Bury, E. F. Garman, H. M. Ginn, R. B. G. Ravelli, I. Carmichael, G. Kneale and J. E. McGeehan
Radiation damage to nucleoprotein complexes in macromolecular crystallography J. Synchrotron Rad. (2015) 22, 213-224.
E. F. Garman and M. Weik
Radiation damage to macromolecules: kill or cure?
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2015) 22, 195-200.
Elspeth F. Garman
Antiviral adhesion molecular mechanisms for influenza: W.G. Laver’s lifetime obsession.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2015)  London, Ser. B  370 2014003.


Shee Chien Yong, Pietro Roversi, James Lillington, Fernanda Rodriguez, Martin Krehenbrink, Oliver B. Zeldin, Elspeth F. Garman, Susan M. Lea, Ben C. Berks
A complex iron-calcium cofactor catalyzing phosphotransfer chemistry
Science (2014) 345 (6201): 1170-1173.
Geoffrey G. Hesketh, Inmaculada Pérez-Dorado, Lauren P. Jackson, Lena Wartosch, Ingmar B. Schäfer, Sally R. Gray, Airlie J. McCoy, Oliver B. Zeldin, Elspeth F. Garman, Michael E. Harbour, Philip R. Evans, Matthew N.J. Seaman, J. Paul Luzio, David J. Owen
VARP Is Recruited on to Endosomes by Direct Interaction with Retromer, Where Together They Function in Export to the Cell Surface
Developmental Cell (2014) 29, 591-606.

Open access. Available here

Elspeth F. Garman
Developments in X-ray Crystallographic Structure Determination of Biological Macromolecules
Science (2014) 34, 1102-1108
For link to the full text click here
For link to the full text as a pdf click here.


Oliver B. Zeldin, Markus Gerstel and Elspeth Garman
RADDOSE-3D: time- and space-resolved modeling of dose in macromolecular crystallography
J. Appl. Cryst. (2013) 46, 1225-1230.
Kristin A.  Sutton, Paul Black, Kermit R.Mercer, Elspeth F. Garman, Robin L. Owen, Edward H. Snell and William A. Bernhard
Insights into the mechanism of X-ray induced disulfide bond cleavage in lysozyme crystals based on EPR, optical absorption, and X-ray diffraction studies
Acta Cryst. D (2013) 69, 2381-2394.
Elspeth F. Garman.
Radiation Damage in Macromolecular Crystallography: What Is It and Why Do We Care?
Methods for Biomolecular Crystallography NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology 2013, pp 69-77.
Areej Abuhammad, Edward D. Lowe, Michael A. McDonough, Patrick D. Shaw Stewart, Stefan A. Kolek, Edith Sim, Elspeth F. Garman.
Structure of arylamine N-acetyltransferase from M. tuberculosis determined by cross-seeding with homologous protein from M. marinum: Triumph over Adversity.
Acta Cryst. D (2013) 69, 1433-1446.
Oliver B. Zeldin, Markus Gerstel and Elspeth F. Garman
Optimizing the spatial distribution of dose in X-ray macromolecular crystallography
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2013) 20, 49-57.
Elizabeth G. Allan, Melissa C. Kander, Ian Carmichael and Elspeth F. Garman
To scavenge or not to scavenge, that is STILL the question
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2013) 20, 23-36.
Elspeth F. Garman and Martin Weik
Radiation damage to biological macromolecules: some answers and more questions
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2013) 20, 1-6.
Elspeth F. Garman and Oliver B. Zeldin
Elemental Analysis of Proteins by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (microPIXE)
Advancing Methods for Biomolecular Crystallography NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology 2013, pp 79-89.


Areej Abuhammad, Elizabeth Fullam, Edward D. Lowe, David Staunton, Akane Kawamura, Isaac M. Westwood, Sanjib Bhakta, Alun C. Garner, David L. Wilson, Peter T. Seden, Stephen G. Davies, Angela J. Russell, Elspeth F. Garman and Edith Sim
Piperidinols That Show Anti-Tubercular Activity as Inhibitors of Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An Essential Enzyme for Mycobacterial Survival Inside Macrophages
PLoS ONE 7(12): e52790.
Elspeth F Garman.
Radiation Damage
International Tables for Crystallography (2012) Volume F. (Ch. 10.3 pp. 256-261)
Eugenio De la Mora, Janet Lovett, Christopher Blanford, Elspeth F. Garman, Brenda Valderrama and Enrique Rudiño-Piñera.
Structural changes caused by radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis: the effect of X-ray absorbed dose in a fungal multicopper oxidase
Acta Cryst. (2012) D68, 564-577.


Karthik S. Paithankar, Henning O. Sørensen, Jonathan P. Wright, Søren Schmidt, Henning F. Poulsen and Elspeth F. Garman
Simultaneous X-ray diffraction from multiple single crystals of Macromolecules
Acta Cryst. (2011) D67, 608–618.
Elspeth F. Garman and M. Weik
Macromolecular crystallography radiation damage research: what's new?
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2011) 18, 313-317
Eugenio De la Mora, Ian Carmichael and Elspeth F. Garman
Effective scavenging at cryotemperatures: further increasing the dose tolerance of protein crystals.
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2011) 18, 346-357


Areej M. Abuhammad, Edward D. Lowe, Elizabeth Fullam, Martin Noble, Elspeth F. Garman and Edith Sim
Probing the architecture of the Mycobacterium marinum Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase active site
Protein and Cell (2010) 1(4) 384-392.
Elspeth F Garman, Arwen R Pearson and Clemens Vonrhein
Experimental Phasing and Radiation Damage
Acta Cryst. (2010) D66, Preface to Issue.
Elspeth F. Garman
Radiation damage in macromolecular crystallography: what is it and why should we care?
Acta Cryst. (2010) D66, 339-351.
Karthik S. Paithankar and Elspeth F. Garman
Know your dose: RADDOSE
Acta Cryst. (2010). D66, 381-388.


Robin L. Owen, James M. Holton, Clemens Schulze-Briese and Elspeth F. Garman.
Response to Krumrey's Comments on 'Determination of X-ray flux using silicon pin diodes by Robin L. Owen, James M. Holton, Clemens Schulze-Briese, & Elspeth F. Garman. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (2009) 16, 143-151'.
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2009) 16, 691-692.
Elspeth F. Garman and Colin Nave
Radiation Damage in Protein Crystals Examined Under Various Conditions by Different Methods
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2009) 16, 129-132
Robin L. Owen, James M. Holton, Clemens Schulze-Briese, and Elspeth F. Garman
Determination of X-ray flux using silicon pin diodes
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2009) 16, 143-151
Karthik S. Paithankar, Robin Leslie Owen, Elspeth F. Garman
Absorbed dose calculations for macromolecular crystals: improvements to RADDOSE
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2009) 16, 152-162
Adam I. Barker, Robert J. Southworth-Davies, Karthik S. Paithankar, Ian Carmichael and Elspeth F. Garman
Room temperature scavengers for MX: increased lifetimes and modified dose dependence of the intensity decay
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2009) 16, 205-216
Véronique Sauvé, Pietro Roversi, Kirstin J. Leath, Elspeth F. Garman, Robin Antrobus, Susan M. Lea, and Ben C. Berks
Mechanism for the Hydrolysis of a Sulfur-Sulfur Bond Based on the Crystal Structure of the Thiosulfohydrolase SoxB
J. Biol. Chem. (2009) 284, 21707-21718
Elspeth Garman
Crystal handling for cryogenic data collection
Crystallisation of Proteins: Techniques, strategies and Tips. A LaboratoryManual.
Editor Terese Bergfors. Publisher: International University Line, La Jolla, U.S.A. 1999
ISBN 0-9636817-5-3.


Simon C Willies, Michael N, Isupov, Elspeth F. Garman, Jennifer A. Littlechild
The binding of haem and zinc in the 1.9 Å X-ray structure of Escherichia coli bacterioferritin
Journal Biological Inorganic Chemistry (2009) e-pub 2008, 14(2), 201-207
Daniel J. Koslover, Anastasia J. Callaghan, MariaJose Marcaida, Elspeth F. Garman, Monika Martick, William G .Scott and Ben Luisi
The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli RNase apoprotein and a mechanism for RNA degradation.
Structure (2008) 16, 1238-1244
Richard J. Bingham, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Nicola A.G. Meenan, Ulrich Schwarz-Linek, Johan P. Turkenburg, Magnus Höök, Elspeth F. Garman and Jennifer R. Potts
Crystal structures of fibronectin-binding sites from Staphylococcus aureus FnBPA in complex with fibronectin domains.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci(2008) 105, 12254-12258
Elspeth Garman
Macromolecular cryo-crystallography
Evolving Methods for Macromolecular Crystallography: The Structural Path to the Understanding of the Mechanism of Action of CBRN Agents (NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry)
Editors: Randy J. Read, Joel L. Sussman.Publisher: Springer, March 1, 2008
ISBN 1402063156.


Robert J. Southworth-Davies, Melissa A. Medina, Ian Carmichael and Elspeth F. Garman
Observation of Decreased Radiation Damage at Higher Dose Rates in Room Temperature Protein Crystallography
Structure (2007) 15, 1531-1541
Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Raimond B.G. Ravelli, George M. Sheldrick, Max H. Nanao, Vladimir V. Korostelev, Joern M. Werner, Ulrich Schwarz-Linek, Jennifer R. Potts and Elspeth F. Garman
The solution and crystal structures of a module pair from the Staphylococcus aureus-binding site of human fibronectin - a tale with a twist
JMB (2007) 368, 833-844
Will A Stanley, Niko Pursiainen, Elspeth F Garman, Andre Juffer, Matthias Wilmanns and Petri Kursula
A previously unobserved conformation for the human Pex5p receptor suggests roles for intrinsic flexibility and rigid domain motions in ligand binding
BMC Structural Biology (2007) 7, 24-36
Elspeth F. Garman and Sean McSweeney
Progress in research into radiation damage in cryo-cooled macromolecular crystals
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2007) 14, 1-3
Robert J. Southworth-Davies and Elspeth F. Garman
Radioprotectant screening for cryocrystallography.
J. Synchrotron Rad. (2007) 14, 73-83
Elspeth Garman and Robert Sweet
X-ray data collection from macromolecular crystals
Methods in Molecular Biology.
Editor Sylvie Doublié.
The Humana Press, NJ, USA. pages 63-94 (2007)
Elspeth Garman and Robin Owen
Cryocrystallography: practice and optimisation.
Methods in Molecular Biology.
Editor Sylvie Doublié.
The Humana Press, NJ, USA. pages 1-18 (2007)
Debora Lucarelli, Santina Russo, Elspeth Garman, Wolfram Meyer-Klaucke and Ehmke Pohl
Crystal Structure and Function of the Zinc Uptake Regulator FurB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
JBC (2007) 282, 9914-9922
Elspeth F. Garman
Macromolecular Cryo-crystallography
Editors R.J. Read and J.L. Sussman
Evolving Methods for Macromolecular Crystallography, 25-40. 2007.  Springer.
Robert J Southworth-Davies, Andy Scothern, Kirstin Leath, Geoff W.Grime and Elspeth Garman
The identification of a new contaminant-free sample support film for microPIXE analysis.
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission and its Analytical Applications ISBN 9789703251155 Eds. J.Miranda, J.L.Ruvalcaba-Sil and OG. De Lucio, Published by UNAM, Mexico 2007


Tobias Karlberg, Ulrika Schagerlöf, Oleksandr Gakh, Sungjo Park, Ulf Ryde, Martin Lindahl, Kirstin Leath, Elspeth Garman, Grazia Isaya and Salam Al-Karadaghi
The Structure of Frataxin Oligomers Reveal the Mechanism for the Delivery and Detoxification of Iron.
Structure (2006) 14, 1535-1546
Elspeth Garman
Tailor made drugs, if used wisely, will save lives
Commentary, London Evening Standard 24/2/06
Raimond B.G. Ravelli and Elspeth F. Garman
Radiation damage in macromolecular cryocrystallography
Current Opinion of Structural Biology (2006) 16, 624-629
James C Analytis, Arzhang Ardevan, Stephen J.Blundell, Robin Leslie Owen, Elspeth F .Garman, Chris Jeynes and Ben J.Powell.
The effect of irradiation-induced disorder on the conductivity and critical temperature of the organic superconductor .-(BEDT-TTF)2 Cu(SCN)2.
Phys Rev Letts. (2006) 96,177002.
Robin Leslie Owen, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Elspeth F. Garman.
Experimental determination of the radiation dose limit for cryocooled protein crystals.
PNAS (2006) 103, 4912-4917.
Elspeth Garman and Robin Leslie Owen.
Cryo-cooling and radiation damage in macromolecular crystallography.
Acta Cryst D (2006) 62, 32-47.


Elspeth F. Garman.
SARS proteomics reveals viral secrets.
Structure (2005) 11, 1582-1583.
A. Callaghan, Y. Redko, L. M. Murphy, G. Grossmann, D. Yates, E. Garman, L. L. Ileg, C. V. Robinson, M. F. Symmons, K. J. McDowall and B. Luisi.
"Zn-link": A metal-sharing interface that organizes the quaternarystructure and catalytic site of the endoribonuclease, RNase E.
Biochemistry. (2005) 44, 4667-4675.
Colin Nave and Elspeth Garman.
Towards an understanding of radiation damage in Cryo-cooled crystals.
JSR (2005), 12, 257-260.
James Murray, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Robin Owen, Martin Gringinge, Raimond Ravelli and Elspeth Garman.
Parameters affecting the X-ray dose absorbed by macromolecular crystals.
JSR (2005), 12, 268-275.
Robin Leslie Owen and Elspeth Garman.
A new method for predetermining the diffraction quality of protein crystals:using SOAP as a selection tool
Acta Cryst. D (2005) 61, 130-140.
Elspeth Garman and Geoff Grime.
Elemental analysis of proteins by microPIXE.
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. (2005) 89/2, 173-205.
Elspeth Garman and Graeme Laver.
The Structure, function and inhibition of influenza virus neuraminidase.
Chapter in 'Viral Membrane Proteins: Structure, Function and Drug Design.'
Edited by Wolfgang Fischer.
Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. (2005) Pages 247-267


Robin Leslie Owen, Mice Pritchard and Elspeth Garman.
Temperature Characteristics of crystal storage devices in a CP100 dry shipping Dewar.
J. Appl. Cryst. (2004) 37, 1000-1003.
Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Uli Schwarz-Linek, Jen Potts and Elspeth Garman
Twinned or not twinned, that is the question: crystallisation and preliminary crystallgraphic analysis of the 2F13F1 module pair of human fibronectin.
Acta D (2004) 60, 1341-1345.
James Murray, Elspeth Garman and Raimond Ravelli.
X-ray absorption by macromolecular crystals: the effects of wavelength andcrystal composition on absorbed dose.
J. Appl. Cryst. (2004) 37, 513-522.
Paul H. Backe, Raimond B.G. Ravelli, Elspeth Garman and Stephen Cusack.
Crystallisation, microPIXE and preliminary crystallographic ananlysis of thecomplex between the third KH domain of hnRNP K and single stranded DNA.
Acta D (2004) 60, 784-787
Elspeth Garman and Graeme Laver.
Controlling Influenza by Inhibiting the Virus's Neuraminidase.
Current Drug Targets (2004) 5
Florence Vincent, David Yates, Elspeth Garman, Gideon Davies and James Brannigan
The three-dimensional structure of the N-Acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate Decetylase, NagA, from Bacillus subtilis
Journal of Biological Chemistry 279, 4, 2809-2816
D. Yates, E.F. Garman, N. Gemmell, I. Gomez-Morilla, G.W. Grime.
Characterisation Of Thin Support Films For MicroPIXE Analysis Of Metals In iological Materials
Proceedings ofthe 10th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission and itsAnalytical Applications ISBN 9616303627
Ed. Milos Budnar, Publishedby Institute Josef Stefan, Ljubljana, Slovenia. 2004.pdf
G.W. Grime, I. Gomez-Morilla, D. Yates, E.F. Garman.
PIXE analysis of single atoms: measuring metal atom concentrations in protein molecules
In 'Proceedings ofthe 10th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission and itsAnalytical Applications' ISBN 9616303627
Ed. Milos Budnar, Publishedby Institute Josef Stefan, Ljubljana, Slovenia. 2004.pdf


Elspeth Garman.
'Cool crystals': Cryocrystallography and Radiation Damage.
Current Opinion of Structural Biology 9, 545-551.
Elspeth Garman and James Murray.
Heavy-atom derivatisation.
Acta Cryst. D 59, 1903-1913.
Ehmke Pohl, Jon C. Haller, Ana Mijovilovich, Wolfram Meyer-Klaucke, Elspeth Garman and Michael Vasil.
Architecture of a protein central to iron homeostatis: crystal structure and spectroscopic analysis of the ferric uptake regulator.
Molecular Microbiology 47 903-915.
Garman, E.F. and Doublie, S.
Cryocooling of Macromolecular Crystals: Optimisation Methods.
Methods in Enzymology (2003) 368, 188-216.
Eva Scheuring Vanamee, Pei-chung Hseih, Zhenyu Zhu, David Yates, Elspeth Garman, Shuang-yong Xu and Aneel Aggarwal.
Glucocorticoid-like Zn(Cys)4 Zn motifs in BslI restriction endonuclease.
J. Mol. Biol. 334, 595-603.


Murray, J.M. and Garman, E.F.
Investigation of Possible Free Radical Scavengers and Metrics for Radiation Damage in Protein Crystallography.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 9, 347-354.
O Neill, P., Stevens, D.L. and Garman, E.F.
Physical and chemical considerations of damage induced in protein crystals bysynchrotron radiation: a radiation chemical perspective.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 9, 329-332.
Elspeth Garman and Colin Nave.
Radiation damage to crystalline biological molecules: current view.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 9, 327-328.
Laver, W.G. and Garman, E.F.
Pandemic influenza: its origin and control.
Microbes and Infection 4,1309-1316.
Timothy M.McPhillips, Scott E.McPhillips, Hsiu Ju Chiu, Aina E.Cohen, Ashley M.Deacon, Paul J.Ellis, Elspeth Garman, Ana Gonzalez, NicholasK.Sauter, R.Paul Phizackerley, S. Michael Soltis and Peter Kuhn.
Blu-Ice and the Distribution Control System: software for data acquisition andinstrument control at macromolecular crystallography beamlines.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (2002) bf 9, 401-406.


W.G.Laver and Elspeth Garman.
The Origin and Control of Pandemic Influenza.
Science 293, 1776-1777.pdf
Andrea Szilagyi, Minakshi Ghosh, Elspeth Garman, Maria Vas
MgADP and 3-Phospholglycerate in open confirmation: New insight into the roleof the nucleotide in domain closure.
J. Mol. Biol 306, 499-511pdf
Elspeth Garman.
Macromolecular Cryo-crystallography.
in Methods inMacromolecular Crystallography, D.Turk and L.Johnson (Eds) Nato Science Series.IOS Press 2001. Pages 15-25.


Norica Branza-Nichita, Gabriela Negroiu, Andrei Petrescu, Elspeth Garman, Fran Platt, Mark Wormald, Raymond Dwek, Stefana Petrescu
Mutations at critical N-Glycosolation sites reduce tyrosinase activity byaltering folding and quality control
JBC, 275, 8169-9175pdf
Mathew Bennett, Alexander Krah, Frank Wien, Elspeth Garman, Robert McKenna, Mark Sanderson, Stephen Neidle
A DNA-porphyrin minor groove complex at atomic resolution: The structuralconsequences of porphyrin ruffling
PNAS, 97, 9476-9481pdf
Arris, C.E., Boyle, F.T., Calvert, A.H., Curtin, N.J., Endicott, J.A., Garman E.F., Gibson, A.E., Golding, B.T., Grant, S., Griffin, R.J., Jesbury, P., Johnson, L.N., Lawrie, A.M., Newell, D.R., Noble, M.E., Sausville, E.A., Schultz, R., Yu,W.
Identification of novel purine and pyrimidine cyclin-dependant kinaseinhibitors with distinct molecular interactions and tumor cell growth inhibitorprofiles.
J.Med.Chem 43(15); 2797-2804.pdf
Peter Kuhn, Elspeth Garman, S Michael Soltis.
Limitations inMacromolecular Crystallography due to Radiation Damage.
Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation. Proceedings of the 11th US National Conference,SLAC, 1999 Editors: P.\ Pianetta, John Arthur, Sean Brennan. ISBN1-56396-941-6. (2000) 215-218


Elspeth Garman.
Cool Data: Quantity and Quality.
Acta Cryst D. D55, 1641-1653.pdf
Elspeth Garman.
Leaving no element of doubt: analysis of proteins using microPIXE.
Structure 7, R291-299.pdf
Ed Mitchell, Peter Kuhn and Elspeth Garman.
Demystifying the Synchrotron Trip: a first time user's guide.
Structure, 7, R111-121.pdf
Geoffrey W. Grime, Eva Palsgard, Elspeth F Garman, Marta Ugarte,David Pottage and Paul Wyeth.
Recent Biomedical applications of the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe.
International Journal of PIXE (1999) 9 199-216.
Elspeth Garman.
Crystal handling for cryogenic data collection
Chapter 17. In second edition `Crystallisation of Proteins: Techniquesstrategies and Tips. A Laboratory Manual. Editor: Terese Bergfors. Publisher:International University Line, La Jolla, U.S.A. 1999. ISBN 0-9636817-5-3
Elspeth Garman.
Crystallisation for Cryocrystallography.
Chapter17. In `Crystallisation of Proteins: Techniques strategies and Tips. ALaboratory Manual. Publisher: International University Line, La Jolla, U.S.A.1999. ISBN 0-9636817-5-3


R.M. Esnouf, J. Ren, E.F. Garman, D.O'N.Somers, C.K. Ross, E.Y. Jones, D.K. Stammers and D.I. Stuart.
Continuous and Discontinuous Changes in the Unit Cell of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Crystals on Dehydration. 
Acta Cryst. (1998) D54, 938-953.
Mary Gregoriou, Martin E.M. Noble, Kimberly A. Watson, Elspeth F. Garman, Thomas M. Krulle, Carmen de la Fuente, George W.J. Fleet, Nikos G. Oikonomakos, and Louise N. Johnson.
The structure of a glycogen phosphorylase glucopyranose spirohydantoin complex at 1.8\A resolution and 100 K: The role of the water structure and its contribution to binding. 
Protein Science (1998) 7, 915-927.


Elspeth Garman and Thomas Schneider.
Macromolecular Cryocrystallography.
J.Appl.Cryst. 30, 211-237.
Pamela A. Williams, Vilmos Fulop, Elspeth F. Garman, Neil F. W. Saunders, Stuart J. Ferguson and Janos Hadju.
Haem Ligand-Switching during catalysis in crystals of a nitrogen cycle Enzyme.
Nature (1997) 389, 406-412
Joseph Colacino, Nickolay Chirgadze, Elspeth Garman, K.Gopal Murti, Richard Loncharich, Angela Baxter, Kirk Staschke and W. Graeme Laver.
A single sequence change destabilises the influenza virus neuraminidase tetramer.
Virology (1997) 236, 66-75.
C.M. Nunn, E.F. Garman and S. Neidle. 
Crystal Structure of the DNA Decamer d(CGCAATTGCG) Complexed with the Minor Groove Binding Drug Netropsin.
Biochemistry (1997) 36, 4792-4799.
Johnson LN, Barford D, Owen DJ, Noble MEM, Garman EF
From phosphorylase to phosphorylase kinase.
Signal Transduction in Health and Disease. Corbin JD, Francis SH (eds) pp. 11-28


Elspeth Garman and Edward Mitchell.
Glycerol concentrations required for cryoprotection of 50 typical protein crystallisation solutions.
J.Appl. Cryst. 29, 584-587.
E.P.Mitchell, S.G.Withers, P.Emert, A.T.Vasella, E.F.Garman, N.G. Oikonomakos, and L.N. Johnson.
Ternary Complex Crystal Structures of Glycogen Phosphorylase with the Transition State Analogue Nojirimycin Tetrazole and Phosphate in the T and R States.
Biochemistry (1996) 35, 7341-7355.
Susan Crennell, Elspeth Garman, Graeme Laver, Eric Vimr and Garry Taylor.
The structures of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 neuraminidase and its complexes with three inhibitors at high resolution.
J. Mol. Biol. (1996) 259: 264-280.
Susan Crennell, Elspeth Garman, Graeme Laver, Eric Vimr and Garry Taylor.
The structures of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 neuraminidase and its complexes with three inhibitors at high resolution.
J. Mol. Biol. (1996) 259: 264-280.
E.F. Garman
Modern Methods for rapid X-ray diffraction data collection from crystals of macromolecules.
Ed. M.R. Sanderson. The Humana Press Inc., New Jersey, U.S.A.
Methods in Molecular Biology (1996) Volume 56, pp. 87-126 Physical Methods of Analysis.


N.Brown, M.E.M.Noble, J.A.Endicott, E.F.Garman, S.Wakatsuki, E.Mitchell, B.Rasmussen, T.Hunt and L.N.Johnson.
The structure of cyclin A contains a tandem duplication of a novel protein fold.
Structure (1995) 3, 1235-1247.
D.J.Owen, M.E.M.Noble, E.F.Garman, A.C.Papageorgiou and L.N.Johnson.
Two structures of the catalytic domain of phosphorylase kinase: an active protein kinase complexed with substrate analogue and product.
Structure (1995) 3, 467-482.
Jinshan Ren, Robert Esnouf, Elspeth Garman, Donald Somers, Carl Ross, Ian Kirby, James Keeling, Graham Darby, Yvonne Jones, David Stuart and David Stammers.
High Resolution Structures of HIV-1 RT from four RT-inhibitor complexes.
Nature Structural Biology. (1995) 2, 293-302.
J.A.Endicott, M.E.Noble, E.F.Garman, N.Brown, B.Rasmussen, P.Nurse and L.N.Johnson.
The crystal structure of P13 suc1, a p34cdc2-interacting cell cycle control protein.
EMBO Journal. (1995) 14 1004-1014.
D.J.Owen, A.C.Papageorgiou, E.F.Garman, M.E.M.Noble, and L.N.Johnson.
Expression, Purification and Crystallisation of Phosphorylase Kinase Catalytic Domain.
J. Mol. Biol. (1995) 246, 374-381.


Edward Mitchell and Elspeth Garman.
Flash Freezing of Protein crystals: Investigation of Mosaic Spread and Diffraction Limit with Variation of Cryoprotectant Concentration.
J.Appl. Cryst. 27, 1070-1074.
D.K.Stammers, D.O'N.Somers, C.K.Ross, I.Kirby, P.H.Ray, J.E.Wilson, M.Norman, J.S. Ren, R.M.Esnouf, E.F.Garman, E.Y.Jones and D.I.Stuart.
Crystals of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Diffracting to 2.2Å Resolution.
J.Mol.Biol. (1994) 242, 586-588.
Susan Crennell, Elspeth Garman, Graeme Laver, Eric Vimr and Garry Taylor.
Crystal Structure of Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase reveals dual lectin-like domains in addition to the catalytic domain.
Structure (1994) 2:535-544.
Graeme Laver and Elspeth Garman.
'Flu Neuraminidase: the Virus' Achilles heel?
Science and Technology Now. Winter 1994/95. 6, 30-33.
Graeme Laver and Elspeth Garman.
'Flu Neuraminidase: the Virus' Achilles heel?
Today's Life Science (1994) 6, 40-47.
Elspeth F.Garman and W.G.Laver.
Why we keep catching the 'flu: The Origin and Control of Influenza Pandemics.
Science and Public AffairsWinter 1994. 44-48.


Susan Crennell, Elspeth Garman, Graeme Laver, Eric Vimr and Garry Taylor.
Crystal structure of a bacterial sialidase (from Salmonella typhimurium LT2) shows the same fold as an influenza neuraminidase.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1993) 90, 9852-9856.
M.G.Pickford, E.F.Garman, E.Y.Jones and D.I.Stuart.
A design of crystal mounting cell that allows the controlled variation of humidity at the protein crystal during X-ray diffraction.
J.Appl.Cryst. (1993) 26, 465-466.
Garry Taylor, Elspeth Garman, Robert Webster, Takehiko Saito and Graeme Laver.
Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Studies of Influenza Subtypes N5, N6, N8 and N9.
J.Mol.Biol. (1993) 230, 345-348.
E.Y.Jones, D.I.Stuart, E.F.Garman, R.Griest, D.C.Phillips, G.L.Taylor, O.Matsumoto, G.Darby, B.Larder, D.Lowe, K.Powell, D.Purifoy, C.K.Ross, D.Somers, M.Tisdale and D.K.Stammers.
The growth and characterization of crystals of immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase.
Journal of Crystal Growth (1993) 126, 261-269.
Ewald Shroder, Christopher Phillips, Elspeth Garman, Karl Harlos and Catherine Crawford.
X-ray crystallographic structure of a papain-leupeptin complex.
FEBS (1993) 315, 38-42.
Ewald Shroder, Christopher Phillips, Elspeth Garman, Karl Harlos and Catherine Crawford.
X-ray crystallographic structure of a papain-leupeptin complex.
FEBS (1993) 315, 38-42.
Elspeth Garman.
Problematic data collections: give up or persist?
Data Collection and Processing, Proceedings of the CCP4 Study Weekend. DL/SCI/R34 (1993) 123-131.


Garry Taylor, Eric Vimr, Elspeth Garman, and Graeme Laver.
Purification, Crystallisation and Preliminary Crystallographic Study of Neuraminidase from Vibrio Cholerae and Salmonella Typhimurium LT2.
J. Mol. Biol. (1992) 226, 1287-1290.
David G.Brown, Mark R.Sanderson, Elspeth Garman and Stephen Neidle.
Crystal Structure of a Berenil-d(CGCAAATTTGCG) Complex; an example of Drug-DNA recognition based on Sequence-dependent structural features.
J. Mol. Biol. (1992) 226, 481-490.
Anne Cleasby, Elspeth Garman, Maarten R. Egmond and Max Batenburg.
Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Study of a Lipase from Pseudomonas Glumae.
J.Mol.Biol. (1992) 224, 281-282.
R.W.Pickersgill, G.W.Harris and E.Garman.
Structure of Monoclinic Papain at 1.60Å Resolution.
Acta Cryst. (1992) B48, 59-67.


G.R.Clark, D.G.Brown, M.R.Sanderson, T.Chwalinski, S.Neidle, J.M.Veal, R.L.Jones, W.D.Wilson, G.Zon, E.Garman and D.I. Stuart.
Crystal and solution structures of the oligonucleotide d(ATGCGCAT)2: a combined X-ray and NMR study.
Nucleic Acid Research (1990) 18, 5521-5528.
David G.Brown, Mark R.Sanderson, Jane V.Skelly, Terence C.Jenkins, Tom Brown, Elspeth Garman, David I.Stuart, Stephen Neidle.
Crystal Structure of a Berenil-dodecanuleotide Complex: the Role of Water in Sequence Specific Ligand Binding.
EMBO Journal (1990) Vol. 9, 1329-1334.


D.K.Stammers, K.L.Powell, B.A.Larder, G.Darby, D.J.M.Purifoy, M.Tisdale, D.Lowe, D.I.Stuart, E.Y.Jones, G.Taylor, E.F.Garman, R.Greist and D.C.Phillips.
Structural Studies on HIV Reverse Transcriptase.
Ed. W.G.Laver and G.M.Air. 309-319.
Use of X-ray Crytallography in the Design of Antiviral Agents.  Proceedings of International Virology Conference,  Hawaii 1989.
J.V.Skelly, D.A.Suter, R.J.Knox, E.Garman, D.I.Stuart, M.R.Sanderson, J.J.Roberts and S.Neidle.
Preliminary Crystallographic Data for NAD(P)H Quinone Reductase Isolated from the Walker 256 Rat Carcinoma Cell Line.
J.Mol.Biol., (1989) 205, 623-624.

Publications in Nuclear Physics

W.J.Vemeer, D.M.Pringle, E.F.Garman and I.F.Wright.
YRAST 8+ and 9+ States in 22Na
Phys. Letts., (1989) B217, 28.




Past and present: Many alumni and current members of the Garman group gather at Elspeth's birthday in September 2014. Back row from left to right: Robin Owen, Robert Southworth-Davies, Jonny Brooks-Bartlett, James Murray, Markus Gerstel. Front row from left to right Charlie Bury, Olga Kuznetsova, Elspeth Garman, Areej AbuHammad, Helen Ginn.

Cecile Royal May 2004

Verane Achard 2006

Postdoctoral fellows

Helena Taberman 

I obtained my BSc and MSc in Chemistry continuing to PhD in Structural biology at the University of Eastern Finland. With a grant from the Finnish Cultural Foundation to work on ‘overcoming challenges of radiation damage in macromolecular complexes at the atomic level’ I will carry out systematic studies on radiation damage to protein, DNA, protein/DNA and protein/RNA crystals during structure determination by X-ray diffraction at cryo- and room temperatures. The new electron density loss pipeline, RIDL, will be used to calculate per-atom metrics to quantify the sensitivity to specific damage. Secondly, the newly established metric, Bdamage, will be used to search for incorrect metal assignments in the PDB followed by measuring some of these proteins using the microPIXE method to unambiguously identify the metals. The results will be then used to analyse if the re-identification of the metal affects the assumed function of the chosen proteins. The third aim of the project is to further improve RADDOSE-3D, which allows the radiation dose distribution during a diffraction experiment to be calculated with both time and space resolution.

  • Joined the group in January 2017

Dr. Charlie Bury (Oct 2014 - Dec 2017)

 Education: D. Phil student

Charlie's research focused on the development of computational methods (see https://github.com/GarmanGroup/RIDL) to track and quantify site-specific damage events in macromolecular structures solved by MX. Charlie applied these high-throughput tools investigate radiation damage to range of protein and nucleic acid systems, and reported the first systematic comparison of radiation damage susceptibilities of protein and nucleic acids for both DNA- and RNA-containing systems. Charlie's research also included a critical re-analysis of MX damage series that were previously deposited in the PDB, in order to revise the mechanism at which tyrosine residues are believed to be damaged.

Dr. Katharina Jungnickel (Sept 2013 - Dec 2017)

 Education: D. Phil student

Kata's research focused on membrane protein structural biology using novel tools such as X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). Together with Molecular Dimensions Ltd. and supervision by Prof. Elspeth Garman and Dr. Simon Newstead she worked on crystallisation of membrane transporters, development of crystallisation screens and the usage of new techniques in structure determination gaining high resolution data of membrane proteins.



Research assistant

Joshua Dickerson — Improving RADDOSE-3D

I am making improvements to the group’s dose calculation software, RADDOSE-3D. My main focus is on improving the accuracy of the calculated dose by implementing a fluorescent X-ray escape model and improving and extending the current photoelectron escape model.

  • Joined the group in November 2017

Kathryn Shelley (June 2016 - Sept 2017)

Education: Biochemistry Part II student

Kathryn's research focused on the advances in specific damage detection using Bdamage metric. She completed development of an open-source tool RABDAM to calculate the per-atom Bdamage metric from PDB files, in addition to a highly informative Bnet metric to give an overall indicator for the damage suffered for a PDB entry. She also worked towards the application of energy minimisation methods to correct metal identification in protein crystals.  

Diane Barret (Sept 2016 - July 2017)

 Education: Visiting Masters student

Diane's research involved the investigation of radiation damage to crystalline DNA at both cryo and room temperature. Her research aimed to elucidate why exactly DNA crystals are observed to be so insensitive to radiation damage effects compared to proteins.

Research assistant

Joshua Dickerson — Improving RADDOSE-3D

I am making improvements to the group’s dose calculation software, RADDOSE-3D. My main focus is on improving the accuracy of the calculated dose by implementing a fluorescent X-ray escape model and improving and extending the current photoelectron escape model.

  • Joined the group in November 2017

Elizabeth Hamilton (Sept 2016 - Mar 2017)

 Education: Biochemistry Part II student

Elizabeth investigated the specific damage sites in a biologically relevant protein (a GH7 family protein) to identify the effects of local environment on damage rates and also the influence of radiation damage on the active site.


Katie Nichols (Sept 2016 - Mar 2017)

 Education: Biochemistry Part II student

Katie's research focused on the applicability of radical scavengers to mitigate radiation damage in room temperature MX. She tested different compounds on their ability to prevent both global and specific damage to test protein systems.


Steve Walsh (Jan 2017 - Apr 2017)

 Education: DTP rotation student

Steve's research involved the implementation of the Compton effect and fluorescent X-ray escape into RADDOSE-3D, in order to provide a more accurate estimate of the absorbed dose during X-ray exposure.


Dr. Jonathan Brooks-Bartlett (October 2013 - December 2016)

 Education: D. Phil student

Jonny's research focused on the development of computational methods to track and mathematically correct for detrimental global radiation damage effects when processing diffraction patterns that are collected during MX data collection. His research was not restricted to MX, and he also studied the effects of radiation damage in SAXS data collection, developing an open source python library 'CorMapAnalysis' to visualise the CorMap (Correlation Map) test results for SAXS data and extending the dose calculation software, RADDOSE-3D, for use in SAXS experiments.


Ben Gayther (June 2016 - September 2016)

 Education: Visiting BSc student (UCL)

Ben worked on implementing a photoelectron escape model into the current version of RADDOSE-3D. When incident X-ray photons interact with a crystal during crystallography experiments, each incident photon has the possibility of interacting via the photoelectric effect and producing a photoelectron. These photoelectrons are still able to move throughout the crystal even at cryo temperatures. In small crystals this effect can be used to reduce the overall radiation damage. If the photoelectron escapes out of the crystal, then the energy of this photon is deposited elsewhere and will therefore not contribute to the radiation dose in the crystal.

Shu Tsukui (March 2015 - August 2015)

 Education: Education: Visiting PhD student (Kyoto University)

Shu investigated the technique of magnetically orientating microcrystals in ultra-light curable resins to create MOMAs (magnetically orientated microcrystal arrays). His research indicated that a combination of MOMAs with conventional synchrotron beamlines could have valuable potential for crystal analyses of protein crystals that do not growto larger sizes.

Rebecca Batters (September 2014 - March 2014)

 Education: Part II student

Rebecca studied the effects of sodium nitrate as a scavenging cryoprotectant for X-ray crystallography experiments to see if it would reduce the structural damage caused by the X-rays during an X-ray crystallography experiment. Further to this Rebecca also studied the different scavenging effects of various scavenger species in small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments too.

Tom Dixon (September 2014 - March 2014, October 2014 - January 2015)

 Education: Part II student, Research assistant

Tom's research was focussed on quantifying the specific radiation damage to protein molecules in X-ray crystallography experiments. In particular Tom continued work on the B-damage metric, a new metric to developed by Garman group alumnus Markus Gerstel. He adapted the metric to study progressive radiation damage between successive datasets on the same protein structure and also compared how different probing species affects the specific damage observed in protein structures.

Dr. Markus Gerstel (October 2011 - November 2014)

 Education: D. Phil student

Markus made many important contributions to the group during his time here. His research focus was on the specific structural damage that occurs to proteins during an X-ray crystallography experiment. He developed a new mtric called B-damage which allows crystallographers to evaluate the relative damage of each atom in the sample molecule taking into account variable factors such as how densely each atom is packed in the molecule. He also made significant contributions as one of the original authors of the groups dose calculation software RADDOSE-3D. Markus now works at Diamond Light Source and is involved improving data collection and analysis pipelines for crystallographic experiments.

Dr. Helen Ginn (March 2014 - December 2014)

 Education: Wellcome Trust project student

During her time in the group Helen Ginn made key developments in the groups open source dose calculation software RADDOSE-3D. In particular she wrote extensions so that simulations could be performed on crystals of arbitrary shapes, allow users to use PDB codes to define the content of their protein crystals, and translated legacy code into a single language. Helen is now working towards a D. Phil in Dave Stuart's lab developing new computational tools for processing data collected at X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs).

Oliver Starkey (Sept 2013 - March 2014)

 Education: Part II student

Whilst in the group, Oliver worked on Microbeam Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (MicroPIXE). MicroPIXE is a powerful technique that enables identification and quantification of heavy atoms in proteins by using an energetic proton beam to induce characteristic X-rays from these atoms. This complements X-ray crystallography, allowing different metal atoms to be distinguished and more accurately placed in electron density. The main aim of the project was to examine existing metalloproteins in order to validate and/or refine their PDB structures, armed with quantitative data of their metal content. Oliver made ashtonishing discoveries including some that showed that some protein structures that had been deposited in the PDB were deposited with the incorrect metal content.

Dr. Karthik Paithankar (2006 - 2009)

 Education: EU funded postdoctoral fellow on the TotalCryst project

Dr. Oliver B Zeldin 

Education: D. Phil student




Dr. Areej Abuhammed

Education: D.Phil student




John Bembridge

Education: Part II student




Young Choi

Education: Part II student




Dr. Robert Davies

Education: D.Phil student







Elisabeth Armstrong

Education: Part II student







Adam Barker

Education: Part II student








Professor John Fink

Education: BA, University of Iowa 

MS, PhD, University of Michigan

Sabbatical Visiting Maths Professor









Dr. Enrique Rudiño-Piñera

Education: BSc in Chemistry at Universidad La Salle-Mexico 

MSc in Biotechnology-UNAM-Mexico

PhD in Biochemical Sciences at UNAM-Mexico








Dr. James Murray

Education: BA Hons MSci in Natural Science, Emmanuel College Cambridge 

D.Phil in Molecular Biophysics at Worcester College Oxford.




Dr. Robin Owen

Education: MPhys in Physics at Keble College Oxford 

D.Phil in Physics at Keble College Oxford








Dr. Kirsten Leath

Education: MPhys in Physics at the University of St. Andrews 

D.Phil in Biochemistry at the University Oxford






Olga Kuznetsova

Education: Summer student (2008 and 2009) 







François-Xavier Gallat

Education: Summer student (2007) 







Verane Achard

Education: Summer student (2006)









Elodie Loisel

Education: Summer student (2005) 







Cécile Royal

Education: Summer student (2004)











Andrew Gill 

Education: Part II student (2006) 










Melissa Medina 

Education: Part II student (2006) 









Part II students

Tom McDonagh (2007) (summer student)

Andrew Reader (2005)

William Chao (2004) (summer student)

Stephen Betts (2003)

Ben Hall (2002) (summer student)

David Yates (2002)

James Tichler (2002)

James Grimston (2000)

Petra Lukacik (1999)

Dimitri Karathanassis (1999) (summer student)

Paul Tunnah (1995)

CCP4 Study Weekend - Jan 2018

The annual CCP4 Study Weekend took place at the University of Nottingham from 10th - 12th Jan and Elspeth and Helena, along with the Garman group alumni Charlie and Kathryn, attended. This year the meeting was titled 'Multi and Serial Crystal Data Collection and Processing' as an overview to serial crystallography on XFELs and synchrotron sources, and Elspeth chaired the opening session of the main event on the need for multi and serial measurements.

Group Christmas Dinner - Dec 2017

Garman Group had their annual Christmas Dinner at Elspeth's on 16th of December. Unfortunately that was also the farewell party for Charlie and Kata both of whom left the lab and are off to new adventures.

Garman group members from left to right: Josh, Charlie, Kata, Elspeth, Helena and Kathryn. And the Baked Alaska in front!

IUCr Meeting - Aug 2017

Elspeth and Helena attended the triennial 24th Congress and General Assembly of the International Union of Crystallography organised at Hyderabad, India from 21st - 28th Aug. Elspeth was an invited speaker at the 'Minimizing radiation damage' session as well as at the 'Women in Crystallography' lunch seminar organised by Molecular Dimensions. Helena presented a poster on her research on Xylose Isomerase and she also took part on the 'Dragons' Den' competition. Helena also went to the Crystallographic Computing School (15th-20th August 2017) at Bangalore, India right before the main meeting.


Left: Helena's poster. Right: Helena and Elspeth at Dectris party.

Elspeth giving her presentation on the current knowns and unknowns in radiation damage.

Greetings from Bangalore.

From Chocolate to Proteins' - May 2017

Elspeth, Diane and Helena did an outreach at The Royal Institution's Family Fun Day on 13th of May at London. Elspeth gave a talk on crystallography from chocolate to proteins while Helena and Diane helped with the activities.

We also got to see William Lawrence Bragg's Nobel prize at The Royal Institution.

Lunch Break at Bluebell Woods - May 2017

Elspeth took Charlie, Diane, Helena and Anu (from Schnell group) to have a well deserved Friday lunch in the middle of beautiful bluebells at Christmas Common woods.

From left to right: Charlie, Anu, Helena, Elspeth, and Diane.

Back From The Dead - Mar 2017

Along with other volunteers from the Biochemistry Department, Garman Group was involved in hands-on activities explaining how biochemistry contributes to our understanding of antibiotics at the Museum of the History of Science as part of their Back from the Dead education program. The exhibition commemorates the 75th anniversary of the first human trials of penicillin and aims to demystify some of the science behind antibiotics.

Helena making crystals with A-level students.

CCP4 Study Weekend - Jan 2017

From 9th - 11th Jan the annual CCP4 Study Weekend took place at the University of Nottingham and Elspeth, Charlie, Diane, Kathryn and Steve from the group attended. The meeting this year was titled 'From Crystal To Structure' as an overview to the full crystallographic pipeline, and Elspeth chaired a session on model validation and PDB deposition.

ACA meeting - July 2016

Elspeth and Charlie attended the 66th Annual American Crystallographic Association (ACA) meeting, taking place in Denver, Colorado, from 22nd-26th July. Elspeth was an invited speaker as the awardee of the Fankuchen award, for her great contributions to improve cryo-crystallography methods. Charlie was invited to speak as part of the Radiation Damage session, and for this he was awarded the Etter Student Award from the Light Source Special Interest Group.

Charlie  receiving his award from Dr Gerd Rosenbaum from the Advanced Light Source in Chicago:

GRC - July 2016

On 17th-22nd July, Elspeth and Charlie attended the Gordon Research Conference on Diffraction Methods (GRC) in Structural Biology, held at Bates College in Maine, USA. Elspeth presented a talk on the microPIXE technique for high precision element detection, which received a great amount of interest from the audience. Charlie presented a poster on his RIDL specific damage quantification pipeline, and the application to investigating the (im)possibility of tyrosine damage events. Charlie also attended the Young Students Gordon Research Symposium (GRS) taking place directly preceding the main conference.

RD9 - March 2016

Elspeth, Jonny, and Charlie attended the 9th International Workshop on X-ray Radiation Damage to Biological Crystalline Samples (RD9) from 9th-11th March 2016, in Lund, Sweden, which Elspeth organised. Elspeth delivered a lecture on the accuracy of dose calculations, and Jonny presented his new research on state-space models for global radiation damage correction. Charlie also gave a short 'taster' talk to advertise his poster on his RIDL specific damage quantification pipeline. The workshop also featured a tour of the newly built MAX-IV synchrotron.

ECM29 - August 2015

Elspeth, Jonny, Charlie and Shu attended the 29th annual European Crystallographic Meeting (ECM29) held in Rovinj, Croatia, from the 23-28th August. Jonny, Charlie and Shu all presented posters at the session, and Elspeth chaired a plenary lecture delivered by Henry Chapman. Jonny and Charlie also attended the Crystallographic Computing Satellite Meeting taking place in Rovinj in the few days directly preceding the main conference, in which Jonny held a series of tutorial sessions on the Julia programming language.

Rapidata - May 2015

From 3rd - 8th May the Rapidata Data Collection and Structure Solving: A Practical Course in Macromolecular X-ray Diffraction Measurement took place at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) for the first time. Elspeth gave crystallisation tutorials and lectures at the workshop. During her stay in Stanford she even unexpectedly bumped into a long time friend and collaborator, Martin Weik.

Fishing for crystals - Mar 2015

As part of an ongoing collaboration with the beamline staff at Diamond Light Source I02 to incorporate RADDOSE-3D (the group's dose calculation software) onto the beamline, the group sometimes bring crystals to the beamline to analyse the dose state of the crystal during and after the experiment. After growing some crystals Jonny and Elspeth went to the crystallisation room to fish for some crystals to bring with them on their next trip to Diamond.

Jonny using equipment to measure the approximate size of the protein crystals before harvesting them.

Puerto Rico - Jan 2015

Elspeth travelled to Puerto Rico to attend the BioXFEL STC 2nd Annual International Conference from the 14th - 16th January where she delivered a presentation for students and postdocs about opportunities in research. During her stay, Elspeth also managed to visit two crystallography PhD students at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez.

Why Science? Why Maths? - Jan 2015

Jonny took part in the Why Science? Why Maths? event at Cheney School on Tuesday 13th January. This event was aimed at students considering A-Level and post school options in science and maths. There were many hands-on scientific activities available for the students to try, along with a series of talks by various scientists and mathematicians. Jonny joined members of the British Crystallographic Association with their activities and he also delivered a talk of his own about how maths is used to "see" proteins with X-ray crystallography.

CCP4 Study Weekend - Jan 2015

This years annual CCP4 study weekend was held on January 7rd - January 9th 2015 at the University of Nottingham. The focus of the conference was on advances in experimental phasing, which saw many fantastic speakers including Garman group alumnus Robin Owen. In addition the talks during the main conference there were opportunities to talk to the many developers of the various crystallographic software for demos and updates in CCP4. The conference dinner was amazing and the post dinner entertainment - a ceilidh of course -  had us dancing until the early hours of the morning.

Garman group members from left to right: Jonny, Thomas, Elspeth and Charlie. Oliver Zeldin is on the far right and is a Garman group alumnus.


The CCP4 meeting is a great chance to network and meet other crystallographers.

Hard at Work on the Beamline - Dec 2014

On 16th December the group went to Diamond Light Source to contine an ongoing collaboration between the Garman group and the beamline scientists at Diamond Light Source beamline I02. The project aims to integrate the group software, RADDOSE-3D, into the beamline software so users can use the software to help them design better strategies to minimise the dose accumulated during the crystallography experiment.

Seated from front to back: Tom Dixon, Jonny Brooks, Charlie Bury, Carina Lobley, Thomas Sorensen. Standing: Markus Gerstel

Meeting with the King of Jordan - Nov 2014

Garman group alumnus, Areej Abuhammad, has been hard at work establishing a crystallography lab at the University of Jordan where she currently holds the position of Assistant Professor. The King of Jordan paid a visit to the University where Areej has been working. She met the King and was able to show him the supercomputer facility where she had set up a station to refine crystal structures.

Areej on the far left showing an electron density map (on screen) to the King of Jordan

Illuminating Atoms: Royal Albert Hall Exhibition - Nov 2014

To celebrate the International Year of Crystallography the Illuminating Atoms exhibition was held at the Royal Albert Hall on the 9th November. The exhibition showcases photographs by Max Alexander portraying people and the work within the field of crystallography. To accompany the exhibition Elspeth also presented a talk about how crystallography changed the world along with a special Q&A. The BBC have also posted an article about the exhibition which include quotes from Elspeth about the event.

There is still a chance to see the exhibition at the Royal Albert Hall as there are free open days on Saturday 15th November, Sunday 16th November and Saturday 29th November.

Synchrotron Radiation User Meeting - Sept 2014

The Synchrotron Radiation Users Meeting (SRUM) was held at Diamond Light Source on the 3rd and 4th September. The meeting is a chance for various users of the Diamond synchrotron to share their research and also to discuss issues regarding the synchrotron facility. Elspeth and Jonny were co-authors on a poster along with Garman group alumnus Robin Owen and collaborator (and first author) Ian Carmichael which won a prize at the meeting.

From left to right: Ian Carmichael, Robin Owen, Jonny Brooks and Elspeth Garman

BCA/CCP4 Summer School - Aug 2014

From August 26th - August 31 the BCA/CCP4 Summer School was held at Diamond Light Source. It is intended for students and researchers that are new to crystallography with it's primary aims to provide comprehensive training in crystallography and to promote best practise within the British crystallographic community. Jonny attended the summer school as a student and Elspeth was involved in teaching on teh course. As well as formal training, the summer school also hosted social events where the attendees could network. The post dinner conference speech was given by Stephen Curry.

The students on the last evening after the formal dinner

All attendees and lecturers on the boat trip along the River Thames in Oxford

Diamond Light Source open day - Aug 2014

On August 20th Diamond Light Source held an open day for members of the general public to view the facility while the beam is down. During this time it is possible to see the rings where the electrons are accelerated to produce the X-rays used for the crystallography experiments. During the open day Jonny helped out at the British Crystallographic Association (BCA) stand where visitors were able to grow lysozyme crystals and make crystal structures out of toothpicks and sweets. The next Diamond open day is in October 2014 so for more details see the Diamond website here.

Some of the group that helped out at the BCA stand at Diamond.

The diamond structure made by one of the BCA stand helpers on the day. Not all of the jelly babies lasted long enough to make a stucture.

Work Experience - Aug 2014

For the week beginning 4th August the Garman group was joined by a fantastic A-level student, Ben. During this week he not only learned about the protein structure determination process but also helped with some cutting edge research experiments that took place at Diamond Light Source.

Jonny, Ben and Charlie at Diamond Light Source beamline I04-1.

Gordon Research Conference - July/Aug 2014

The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) and the Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology were held from July 26th through to August 1st at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, United States. Elspeth, Jonny and Helen attended and each presented a poster at the meetings. Helen was also selected to deliver an oral presentation from here poster. 

Elspeth, Jonny and Helen having fun with the car that was rented for the trip.

Group photos with all of the attendees at the conference.

Helen, Arwen Pearson and Elspeth on the ferry to Cushings Island where the group stayed with some of Elspeth's friends prior to the GRS and GRC meetings.

Charlie and the chocolate factory - July 2014

To celebrate Charlie's last journal club before leaving the Garman group for his second Doctoral Training Centre (DTC) short project journal club was held outdoors and the group celebrated with chocolate cake.

Charlie with the chocolate cake after the first incision.

The group outdoors while Charlie cuts slices of cake. At some point the group did actually go over the paper for journal club.

id2 Conference - June 2014

The annual Interdisciplinary Inter-DTC (id2) conference took place at the University of Oxford on the 26th and 27th June. Jonny was one of the organisers of this student conference which aims to bring students together from all over the UK and abroad to network and showcase their interdisciplinary research within the life sciences field. Over the two days the delegates presented posters and talks and also heard talks from keynote speakers, Dr Lisa Melton of Nature Biotech, Sir Professor Mike Brady and Professor Denis Noble. Elspeth was also involved at the conference as a poster judge.  

The id2 conference organising committee together after the conference.

Elspeth and Charlotte Deane judging during the poster session.

A Massive " Thank You" - June 2014

Elspeth received a BIG "thank you" from a group of young students (the oldest of them being 21) whom she helped by co-editing a scientific paper for them. For many of the students it is their first publication. To express their gratitude, they sent this fantastic picture. We wish them all the best. 

Cheltenham Science Festival - June 2014

Jonny joined the British Crystallographic Association Education and Outreach (BCA Education) group on 8th June to do more public engagement of crystallogrpahy at the Cheltenham Science Festival. At the stand members of the public could interactively learn about the process of crystallography with several hands on activities including a growing crystals of lysozyme, pouring marbles to make crystal lattices and operating a model lego beamline. Follow BCA Education on Twitter to learn more about what they do. 

The BCA Education stand at the festival.... before the arrival of the public

Showing off the model lego beam line to members of the public

ISSC14, Crystallographic summer school, Hamburg - May 2014

From May 11-17 Katharina visited her home country, Germany. She attended the International Summer School of Crystallography at DESY/CFEL in Hamburg, organised by Cornelius Gati of Henry Chapman’s laboratory.

She was accompanied by her fellowship friend Ana Rita and also met Markus (also from her fellowship) at the course. Around 30 international students were lucky to get accepted and be welcomed to intensive lectures about the mathematical background of crystallography, held by Carmelo Giacovazzo.  Beside that, a barbecue and a harbor trip were organised to get to know the city and the other students of the course. Overall, a full success!

Ana Rita and Katharina enjoying the weather and harbour birthday in Hamburg.

A Pint of Science - May 2014

May 21st marked the final evening of the international science festival Pint of Science, which aims to deliver complex, cutting-edge science in a informal environment - in the pub. Elspeth Garman was invited to give a talk in the St. Aldates pub titled A new bird flu (H7N9). Should we be afraid? There was even a flu related pub quiz  which was won by a group consisting of Beth Phipps and Garman group students Helen and Jonny.

Elspeth during her talk.

Elspeth with Oxford Pint of Science organiser, Stanley Strawbridge, drawing a ticket for the raffle - which turned out to be Jonny's number!

Elspeth with Garman group members Helen (left) and Jonny (right) along with Beth Phipps.

A Royal Address - Apr 2014

On 28th April Elspeth gave an invited talk at the Royal Society Discussion meeting on ‘Cell Adhesion century: culture breakthrough’ on: Anti-viral adhesion molecular mechanisms for influenza.


Infection by the influenza virus depends firstly on cell adhesion via the sialic acid binding viral surface protein, haemagglutinin, and secondly on the successful escape of progeny viruses from the host cell to enable the disease to spread to other cells. To achieve the latter, influenza utilises another glycoprotein, the enzyme neuraminidase (NA), to cleave the sialic acid receptors from the surface of the original host cell. This talk will trace the development of anti-influenza drugs, from the initial suggestion by MacFarlane Burnet in 1948 that an effective “competitive poison” of the virus’ NA might be useful in controlling infection by the virus, through to the determination of the structure of NA by X-ray crystallography and the realisation of Burnet’s idea with the design of NA inhibitors. A focus will be the contribution of the late William Graeme Laver to this research.


Cryocool and the gang - Apr 2014

The Garman group is growing and with new members comes the transfer of knowledge. Markus and Jonny went digged down to the depths of their knowledge to show the new members of the Garman group, Helen Ginn and Charlie Bury, how to fish and cryo cool their crystals. 


The damage has been done... Crystallographically of course - Apr 2014

Markus, Jonny and Elspeth all attended the 8th International Workshop on X-ray Radiation Damage to Biological Crystalline Samples (RD8) meeting at EMBL Hamburg 10th - 12th April. This was a meeting co-organised by Elspeth and covered many different aspects of radiation damage research. There were tours of the PETRA III synchrotron and the building site for the new European X-ray Free Electron laser. Markus was even invited by the organisers to give a talk.

As usual the group still manage to find the time to have some fun!

After dinner at the conference Elspeth is joined by current members of the Garman group along with Garman group Alumni. From left to right - Markus Gerstel, Oli Zeldin, Elspeth Garman, Robin Owen and Jonny Brooks.

More after dinner fun. From left to right - Jonny Brooks, Professor Ian Carmichael and Robin Owen.

Elspeth inside the tunnel during the tour of the new European X-ray free electron laser. 

At the BBQ dinner. From left to right - Jonny Brooks, Markus Gerstel and Gerard Bricogne

Enjoying Ice cream at a cafe after the conference with some honourary Garman Gang friends. From left to right - Matthew Rodrigues, Professor Arwen Pearson, Garman group alumnus Oli Zeldin and Briony Yorke.


Meals at the speakers' dinner on the final evening of the conference. Just beautiful!

Street performers in Hamburg city centre.

Learning the ways of Crystallography - Mar 2014

During the first year of the Doctoral Training Centre (DTC) at the University of Oxford you get options to take various modules and one of those happens to be Advanced experimental techniques (AET). Markus and Jonny were around to assist on the AET module this year teaching first year DTC students how to set up a crystallisation plate with Lysozyme crystals and how to fish your crystals once they've grown.

Having fun in the crystallisation room. From Left to right: Markus, Jakub Tomek, Martin Ducker, Thomas Newport and Jonny.

Markus in the process of finding a loop in the microscope to show the DTC students how small the loops are. 

Elspeth in SCIENCE!

Elspeth has published a review article in one of the world's top scientific journals: Science. The title of the review is "Developments in X-ray Crystallographic Structure Determination of Biological Macromolecules" and covers the achievements made within the field so far along with future developments that could help us overcome the challenges that crystallography faces today. For links to the article go to our publication page here

Reaching out to the people - Mar 2014

On March the 14th and 15th Katharina, Jonny and Elspeth helped the Museum of the History of Science in Oxford to deliver a series of public engagement events about crystallography to celebrate the international year of crystallography. On the 14th was a sixth form study day where Elspeth gave a lecture and Jonny and Katharina ran practical workshops on using microscopes, growing lysozyme crystals and visualising proteins. On the 15th the museum ran a family day where children and adults of all ages came to learn about crystals and grew lysozyme with us. Both events were fantastic and incredibly rewarding.

Going out with a BANG! - Mar 2014

On March 13th-16th the annual Big Bang fair was held at the NEC in Birmingham and Jonny was there to help out. The Big Bang fair is aimed at young people (aged 7 - 19 primarily) and showcases opportunities and research in a fun and engaging manner. Diamond Light Source had a stand at the fair to demonstrate the various areas and uses of X-ray crystallography. Jonny volunteered to help with the event where he met several other crystallographers. He also enjoyed making crystals of lysozyme with the young people and getting them engaged in science.

Jonny with co-developer of the first Cryostream Cooler Prof Mike Glazer 

With another volunteer Felice Laake

The entire crystallography team on the 13th March at the end of the day. (Very exhausting)

The infamous model lego beamline. It's amazing, it really works!

Beamline Funeral - Feb 2014

Elspeth delievered a talk at the ESRF user meeting on 3rd February to commemorate the ID14-4 beamline which has now been closed down at the ESRF Grenoble. Elspeth's talk, titled "On-line microspectrophotometry and a tophat beam: the magic of ID14-4" was a fitting tribute to one of her favourite beamlines for which many of her scientific experiments took place.

Elspeth delivering the lecture with her title slide.

During the lecture.

It's in the BAG - Feb 2014

On February 25th and 26th Diamond Light Source held a two day BAG training event for crystallographers attended by Jonny. The event was designed to provide macromolecular crystallography (MX) users with sufficient training to be able to operate any of the Diamond MX beamlines efficiently and to get the most benefit from their beamtime. This included a session on software training, where many of the developers were present to provide hands on training with the programs and also visits to many of the MX beamlines with the beamline scientists present to help. Jonny stayed at the Bear hotel on the first evening and ate a delicious meal that included a fantastic slow cooked pork bell and a chocolate and baileys tart (pictured below). It was delicious! Jonny used that time to meet many of the crystallographers on the training event. All in all a brilliant experience.

From left to right: Jonny, Patrick McIntyre, Ian Cadby, Joseph Brock, Daren Fearon and Michael capper

The fantastic Chocolate and Baileys tart with tia maria clotted cream

A Bavarian Adventure - Feb 2014

Katharina travelled to Bavaria to attend the first Ringberg workshop on structural biology with free electron lasers at the Max Planck Society castle accompanied by her other supervisor Simon Newstead. Not only was the location overwhelming but the presentations about the applications of X-ray free electron lasers, its future and current developments were brilliant. The conference gave visitors both time to talk to the leading scientists in the field and generate new ideas for their future work.  Katharina met two of the fellows from Nanomem program again and also some of the scientists that she met on her cross Atlantic journey. A full success!

Enjoying the castle. From left to right: Markus Metz, Katharina and Akram Mohd.

What a view! 

The Cross Atlantic Journey - Part 1: Nozzle Workshop at ASU - Feb 2014

Katharina was invited to attend a workshop in John Spence's lab at Arizona State University(ASU) focussing on prodcuing nozzles for the liquid jet, used for X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) experiments. From 27. Jan-31. Jan she learned, together with other participants from PSI and GU, how difficult the process of making these hand-made pieces can be. In the end she was able to produce two functioning nozzles. Nevertheless, she also enjoyed the sunny weather with fellow attendees and the lovely atmosphere in the lab with Stella Lisova giving the workshop.

From left to right: Rajiv Harimoorthy, Katharina Jungnickel, John Spence, Stella Lisova and Przemyslaw Nogly.

Katharina tries to put on a spacer for the sample capillaries for the nozzle.

The Cross Atlantic Journey - Part 2: XFEL Fun - Feb 2014

After a wonderful week in Arizona, Katharina flew over to Stanford to meet Vadim Cherezov who showed her how they collect XFEL data at the CXI beamline. Not only did she gain knowledge about sample handling but she also got the chance to speak to Uwe Weierstall about the injector system and Petra Fromme about experimenting at XFEL. During her time there she visited Stanford University where she met Garman group alumnus, Oliver Zeldin, and she also got to visit San Francisco.

Inside of the hutch of CXI

Katharina at the Golden Gate Bridge

Taking Care of Business in Hamburg - Data Collection - Jan 2014

Elspeth and Jonny travelled to Hamburg for 6 days between Wednesday 15th January and Monday 20th January to collect diffraction data from various crystals of various proteins. This involved many late nights at the PETRA III synchrotron (the last night ended at 5:30am) but also incredible food. The data collection was made so much easier with invaluable support from Thomas Schneider and Gleb Bourenkov who assisted with the data collection and helped us find our way around the city - we even were invited to Thomas' home to have dinner with his family. Elspeth and Jonny also had their fair share of fun whilst there. The facility is so large that many people get around on scooters inside the building and we weren't afraid to try.

From left to right - Jonny, Gleb Bourenkov, Elspeth and Thomas Schneider

Evening with the Schneider family

Elspeth taking some time out of data collection

CUI Colloquium Talk at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory - Jan 2014

On Thursday 16th January Elspeth delivered a talk titled “Cross disciplinary methods development for advancing structural biology” at EMBL Hamburg. In this talk Elspeth gave a brief introduction to crystallography and covered aspects of her work that included the development of RADDOSE-3D and micro-PIXE.

CCP4 Study Weekend - Jan 2014

This years annual CCP4 study weekend was held on January 3rd - January 5th 2014 at the University of Nottingham. The focus of the conference was on complimentary methods to X-ray crystallography which saw many fantastic speakers including Garman group alumni Robin Owen. In addition the talks during the main conference there were opportunities to talk to the many developers of the various crystallographic software for demos and updates in CCP4. The conference dinner was amazing and the post dinner entertainment had us dancing until the early hours of the morning.



Doctoral Training Centre Christmas Dinner

Towards the end of the Christmas term, the Doctoral Training Centre at Oxford held it's annual DTC christmas dinner attended by over 100 students across the various DTC programmes. Garman Group members Markus and Jonny attended as well as Elspeth. It was a thoroughly enjoyable evening. Until next year......

Lectures in Lapland - Dec 2013

In December 2013 Elspeth travelled to Saariselkä in Northern Lapland to give a lecture entitled: Triumph over adversity: the structure determination of TBNAT to around 80 graduate students attending the annual Winter School of the National Doctoral Programme in Information and Structural Biology. She arrived in Ivalo, 600km north of Helsinki and way north the Arctic Circle to temperatures of MINUS 30 C but to a very warm welcome. The dusk/sunrise combination at 1:00pm was spectacular, and the sun never rose above the horizon.
            Here is Elspeth leaving Ivalo.                           and her meal of reindeer steaks.

British Crystallographic Association Winter Meeting - Dec 2013

On Monday 16th December 2013 Jonny and Katharina travelled to King's College London for the British Crystallographic Association's (BCA) winter meeting for the Biological Structures Group (BSG). Here they learned about several advancements in the field including updates on the status of the UK involvement in the European X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) project. On the trip they also managed to fit in some time to explore London.


Training in Gothenburg - Dec 2013

In December 2013 Katharina flew to Gothenburg for a week of crystallography training. The first three days she visited Astra Zaneca and was introduced to the entire process of compound discovery from screening a large number of compounds for a specific target to introducing the optimised compound to clinical trials. Thursday and Friday she had soft skills training at the university of gothenburg. The session was divided into several sections covering career development planning, gender issues and steps towards delivering good presentations.


Diamond Light Source Trip - Dec 2013

On Thursday 12th December Jonny and Oliver visited the Diamond Light Source (DLS) synchrotron to observe experiments that were taking place at the time. During the visit we both learnt a lot and we managed to get into the experiment hutch where these pictures were taken:



Lipidic Cubic Phase Plate Practice - Dec 2013

On Tuesday 10th December Katharina demonstrated the difficulties trying to cut open Lipidic Cubic Phase (LCP) plates. It requires a lot of care and accuracy and it was incredibly difficult. Below you can see Oliver having a go:

Illuminating Atoms - Elspeth Presents at the Royal Albert Hall

To celebrate the International Year of Crystallography the Illuminating Atoms exhibition was held at the Royal Albert Hall on the 9th November. The exhibition showcases photographs by Max Alexander portraying people and the work within the field of crystallography. The event featured Elspeth who gave a talk about how crystallography has changed the world. The BBC has posted an article about the event which include quotes from Elspeth about the event.

The Life Scientific - Elspeth is intereviewed on BBC radio 4

Each week on the BBC Radio 4 programme, The Life Scientific, theoretical physicist, author and broadcaste Jim Al-Khalili invites a leading scientist to talk about their life and work, including Nobel laureates and now Elspeth Garman. It is a great honour to be invited on to the show. You can listen to the full programme here.

Elspeth does Lab Talk - Interview with Oxford Medical Sciences

Oxford Medical Sciences division has published an interview with Elspeth for the September 2014 issue of OxfordMedSci News. In the interview Elspeth describes the research that is conducted within the lab, what a typical day is like here as well as a brief discussion on how she got to where she is today. For the full interview click here.

Crystals meet Royalty - Elspeth presents crystallography for the Royal Institution Channel

Elspeth continues to promote crystallography, this time explaining crystallography in detail in a video made for the Ri Channel. In the video Elspeth covers how we produce and purify proteins in the lab and how and why we crystallise these proteins. This is the first of a two part series celebrating the International year of crystallography. 

Animation at it's finest - Introduction to crystallography

Elspeth and Jonny were fortunate enough to work with Annabel Cook from Oxford Sparks to help put together the fantastic animation on X-ray crystallography to celebrate 2014 as the International year of crystallography. The animation is designed for a non-specialist audience and gives an overview of crystallography and what it can do. The animation can be found on the Oxford Sparks webpage along with more information about crystallography.

Elspeth on the Radio  

Elspeth Garman was on the radio on Sunday 28 July contributing to the BBC World Service's 'The Forum', an ideas discussions show. The episode was called 'Shining a Light on Crystals', and Elspeth spoke about her work trying to find the perfect protein crystal. Listen to it here.


Elspeth on the Radio...again 

Professor Elspeth Garman commemorates a century since the publication of an idea that made discovering protein structures possible: The Bragg Equation. She takes us from the Braggs' father-and-son discovery of x-ray crystallography and publication of the structure of table salt in 1913, to the cutting-edge work happening in her lab at Oxford University. Listen to it here.


Elspeth delivers the 2010 Dorothy Hodgkin Memorial Lecture

Somerville College and the Association for Women in Science and Engineering hold the annual Dorothy Hodgkin Memorial Lecture. On the centenary of Dorothy Hodgkin's birth, the lecture was given by Professor Elspeth Garman (former president, British Crystallographic Association, Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Director of the Life Sciences Interface, Doctoral Training Centre, University of Oxford, and Senior Kurti Fellow, Brasenose College) on the topic of 'Crystallography One Century AD (after Dorothy)'. Click here to see the lecture


Jonny and others create an X-ray Crystallography Mini Movie  

During a structural biology module at the Systems Biology Doctoral Training Centre (Sysbio DTC) Jonny and colleagues (Pedro Aparicio and Isabel Frost) created a mini movie titled "Is X-ray Crystallography the answer to everything?" This is the finished product.


Charlie awarded Etter Student Award 

Charlie has won the Etter Student Award from the Light Source Special Interest Group of the ACA. He received the award at the 66th Annual ACA meeting in Denver on 26th July 2016, where he delivered a lecture entitled ‘RIDL: A tool to track MX specific radiation damage’ to the session on radiation damage in macromolecular crystallography The award consisted of a plaque, a cheque, and a free registration for next year’s ACA meeting in New Orleans. Picture on left shows Charlie receiving award from Dr Gerd Rosenbaum from the University of Georgia and the Advanced Light Source in Chicago.


Elspeth wins Fankuchen Award

Elspeth has been awarded the 2016 .American Crystallographic Association Fankuchen Award, an award created "to recognize contributions to crystallographic research by one who is known to be an effective teacher of crystallography". Elspeth received the award at the 66th Annual ACA meeting, in Denver, Colorado in July 2016, in which she will give a prize lecture.

The prestigious Fankuchen Award is given every 3 years, in memory of Dr. I. Fankuchen, Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn from 1942 to 1964 (shown in photo on left).



Elspeth wins Mildred Dresselhaus Prize

Elspeth has been awarded the 2015 Mildred Dresselhaus Award by the University of Hamburg. The award recognizes Elspeth’s outstanding contributions to structural biology as well as mentoring and training a generation of crystallographers. The award was presented this year by the Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging (CUI) and includes a personal prize combined with a guest professorship. The picture on the left shows Elspeth receiving her award from Prof. Arwen Pearson from the CUI. Well done Elspeth!



Jonny wins I'm A Scientist Get Me Out Of Here

From the 15th - 26th June Jonny took part in a science communication competition called I'm A Scientist Get Me Out Of Here. It's a free online event where school students meet and interact with scientists and the students are the judges. They challenge a group of scientists over fast-paced online text-based live chats, ask them anything they want, and then vote for their favourite scientist to win a prize of £500 to communicate their work with the public. Jonny won this competition although has not yet come up with a plan for the money.


Elspeth wins WIFTS Foundation Humanitarian award

For her contributions to the field of X-ray crystallogrpahy and her ongoing commitment to the public understanding of the field, Elspeth has recieved the 2014 WIFTS Foundation Humanitarian Award. The WIFTS (Women's International Film and Television Showcase) "strives to create a new strand of recognition, finding outstanding gems of individuality’ within all arenas and bring them together through the art form of Film & Television". In particular Elspeth's award comes from work Elspeth did with the Royal Institution, presenting the first of a 2 part documentary on Understanding Crystallography


Jonny wins poster prize at the Gordon Research Seminar

At the Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology that took place on the 26th and 27th July 2014 Jonny was one of the five winners of the poster prize for best poster. His poster titled "Crystal Math: Dose Decay of Diffraction" detailed his work on investigating the ability of different mathematical models of diffracted intensity decay to describe data that were collected at the PETRA III synchrotron in Hamburg in January 2014.





Life is all roses  - Elspeth Presented with Rose Award Lecture

Elspeth delivered the 2014 Rose Award Lecture which recognises the contribution of distinguished female scientists and Engineers. Elspeth gave her talk about how the legacy of the Braggs (William and Henry) lives on with the techniques of crystallography that are still in use to study biological structure and function on a molecular level. 

Elspeth is pictured holding her award with professor Julius Weinberg, Kingston University Vice-Chancellor.



Doing the Double - Elspeth wins second teaching award in 8 days

Elspeth wins another teaching award at the Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences (MPLS) division Summer Party. Elspeth won the award for her committment and quality of teaching at the Doctoral Training Centre (DTC). However, Elspeth could not make the award ceremony so Jonny attended instead to collect the certificate on Elspeth's behalf. Elspeth runs the introductory maths course for postgraduate students in their first year at the DTC.



Teaching Excellence - Elspeth wins award at the OUSU Teaching Awards 2014

Elspeth has been awarded 'Most Acclaimed Lecturer' 2014 in the Medical Sciences at the Oxford University Student Union (OUSU) Teaching Awards - an award she was also shortlisted for in 2013.

Between teaching at the Doctoral Training Centre and first year biochemistry undergraduates, Elspeth has a wealth of experience in teaching at the University and the award is the result of the hard work, time and effort put in to create a high quality teaching experience for the students.

For the full list of winners in the 2014 OUSU Teaching Awards click here.


Jonny get runner-up prize at the FameLab UK final

On April 23rd 2014 Jonny Brooks competed in the UK national FameLab final and was awarded the runner-up prize. Jonny gave his 3 minute presentation explaining the infectious disease model of Facebook membership used by Princeton researchers used to show that Facebook would lose 80% of it's users by 2017. Click here to watch the video. 



Markus is Invited to present talk and Radiation Damage 8 Workshop

Markus Gerstel was invited to give a talk at the RD8 meeting at EMBL Hamburg in April 2014. His talk titled "Quantifying radiation damage in real space" covered some of the work that he's been working on in his DPhil project. In particular he presented work on a new atomic metric for real space radiation damage, BDamage.




Markus is Invited to present at Red Kite 5 meeting

At the recent Red Kite meeting in January held at the University of Oxford, Markus Gerstel was invited to give a talk titled "Quantifying radiation damage in MX."

Jonny Wins Regional Famelab Final

On December 12th 2013 Jonny Brooks competed and won the regional finals of Famelab. Famelab is a science communication competition where each competitor has 3 minutes to explain a science, technology, engineering or mathematical topic of their choice to a non-specialist audience without the use of digital aids such as power point. Jonny decided to present a talk on "The magic of Fourier Transforms" describing how to interpret the Fourier transform of a wave with a couple of real world applications.

Click here to watch the Oxford Regional Final



Jonny Wins Poster Prize at ECM28

Jonathan Brooks-Bartlett won the RCSB Protein Data Bank poster prize for the best student poster related to macromolecular crystallography at the European Crystallography Meeting earlier in the year.

The poster was based on work that he did in the group in summer 2013 during his 10 week project before starting his DPhil here. His poster presented the work he had done using an existing model of damage decay applied to data that was collected by a previous student within the Garman group. It described the application of a room temperature model for the dose decay of the spot intensity on a diffraction pattern to cryotemperatures (at 100 Kelvin) during macromolecular x-ray crystallography experiments.

For more information click here.


Oliver Zeldin

  • Notable Prize WinnerBiochemistry DPhil Symposium, University of Oxford 2012
  • Talk selected for presentation at Biochemistry DPhil symposium, Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics Seminar Series, University of Oxford 2012
  • Selected Poster for Oral Presentation (RADDOSE-3D)Gordon Research Conference on Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology, ME, USA, 2012
  • Best Talk by a Young Crystallographer, (microPIXE) British Crystallographic Association Spring Meeting, Keele 2011


Eugenio de la Mora Lugo

  • David Phillips Blue John BCA Biological Poster PrizeBritish Crystallographic Association Spring Meeting, Warwick 2009


Department of Biochemistry

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin Builiding

University of Oxford
South Parks Road



Elspeth Garmanelspeth.garman@bioch.ox.ac.uk

Graduate Student and Postdoctoral Positions: No longer taking new researchers into the group.


RADDOSE-3D is a software program that allows the macroscopic modelling of an X-ray diffraction experiment for the purpose of better predicting radiation-damage progression. A spatially and temporally resolved distribution of dose is calculated and output by the program. Below is an example output using RADDOSE-3D.

This is dose map for a particular input configuration described in the paper on RADDOSE-3D. Isosurfaces are shown at 0.05 and 5 MGy, and a slice map is shown in the plane perpendicular to the rotation axis and along the beam axis. The crystal has been rotated about the y axis, with the beam starting down the z axis and ending along the x axis, as labelled in the figure. Visualization produced using Paraview.
RADDOSE-3D is completely free and open source. You can visit the website, www.raddo.se, and create a job which will run on a remote server. You can get the results via a link given on the website or have it emailed to you. Alternatively you can download the latest release of the program here or even have a look at the source code.



Acta Cryst A. (2013). A69, s83
Structure of arylamine N-acetyltransferase from M.tuberculosis: triumph over adversity  A. Abuhammed, E.D. Lowe, M. A. McDonough, E.Sim and E.F. Garman http://journals.iucr.org/a/issues/2013/a1/00/a50772/a50772.pdf
Acta Cryst A. (2013). A69, s85
Get the most out of your precious crystal with three-dimensional dose modeling
O. B. Zeldin, M. Gerstel, S. Brockhauser, J. Bremridge and E. F. Garman http://journals.iucr.org/a/issues/2013/a1/00/a50774/a50774.pdf
Acta Cryst A. (2013). A69, s86
X-ray induced disulfide bond cleavage studied with EPR, optical absorption and X-ray diffraction
E. H. Snell, K. A. Sutton, P. Black, K. R. Mercer, E. F. Garman, R. L. Owen and W. A. Bernhard
Acta Cryst A. (2013). A69, s243
I am a protein crystal: get me out of here!
E. F. Garman
Acta Cryst A. (2013). A69, s405
X-ray induced disulfide bond cleavage studied with EPR, optical absorption and X-ray diffraction
E. H. Snell, K. A. Sutton, P. Black, K. R. Mercer, E. F. Garman, R. L. Owen and W. A. Bernhard
Acta Cryst A. (2013). A69, s407-s408
Quantitative radiation damage studies in macromolecular X-ray crystallography
M. Gerstel, N. Olekhnovich, J. Brooks-Bartlett, Z. S. Derewenda, C. M. Deane and E. F. Garman
Acta Cryst A. (2013). A69, s410
Exploring relationships between diffracted intensity decay and a new dose metric
J. Brooks-Bartlett, O. B. Zeldin and E. F. Garman